Ruthless Tsarinas and Palace Coups: Anna I and Elizabeth I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ruthless Tsarinas and Palace Coups: Anna I and Elizabeth I

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  1. Ruthless Tsarinas and Palace Coups: Anna I and Elizabeth I

  2. Catherine I, b. 1684, r. 1725-1727 • Peasant background • Peter I’s second wife • Married 1707, bore nine children, two survived to adulthood: Anna and Elizabeth. • 1724 named co-ruler. • Ruled mostly in name only • Privy Council (A. Menshikov and P. Tolstoi) - the real ruler. • First woman to rule Russia • Founded the Russian Academy • Built bridges and palaces in “Piter”

  3. Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, 1673-1729 • Born a petty noble • Franz LeFort found him selling pirozhki on the streets of Moscow. • LeFort died in 1699 • Menshikov replaced him as Peter I’s first advisor. • Pushkin’s “half-tsar”

  4. Tsarina EvdokiyaFeodorovnaLopukhina (Peter’s first wife) • Married to Peter, 1689-1698. • b. 1669; d. 1731 • Gave birth to three sons, but only Alexei survived to adulthood • Before Alexei died from torture/interrogation, his wife, Charlotte, bore Peter II.

  5. Peter II, b. 1715, r. 1727-1730 • Grandson of Peter I • Ruled initially in name only • AleksandrMenshikov and Andrei Osterman ran the government. • But Peter turned his back on Menshikov and “Piter.” • Menshikov was ruined; exiled to Siberia. • Prince VasilyDolgorukov took him to Moscow. • Died on his wedding day, 30 January 1730, of smallpox.

  6. Empress Anna Ivanovnab. 1693, ruled 1730-1740 • Daughter of Ivan V (Peter’s co-tsar) • Duchess of Courland, 1711-1730 • Privy Council (Prince Dmitri Galitzine) thought her compliant. • Instead she ruled in fact • Humiliated Russian nobles • Appointed Baltic Germans. • Brought Russia into the War of Polish Succession, 1733-35 • Died at 47 of kidney disease

  7. Ivan VI, r. 1740-41 • Born 1740 • Anna adopted him and appointed him as successor. • Replaced in Elizabeth’s coup. • Imprisoned for the rest of his life. • Killed in 1764.

  8. Elizabeth I, b. 1709, r. 1741-1761 • Daughter of Peter I and Catherine I • War of Austrian succession, 1740-48 • Seven Years’ War, 1756-63 • Established the University of Moscow (1755) and the Academy of Fine Arts. • Ended the death penalty. • Removed internal tariffs. • Spread Enlightenment ideas. • Laid groundwork for Catherine II.