Mind-Body Problem Near-death experiences raise the mind-body issue. Can the mind survive the dying body? Dualism:Dualists believe that mind (non-physical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact. Hippocrates Monism:Monists believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing. Aristotle 6
HISTORICAL ORIGINS -Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -Origin of the Species introduces theories of natural selection and evolution - his ideas will give rise to the evolutionary approach to psychology
WAVE ONE: Introspection
PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS BORN Wilhelm Wundt’s –credited as the father of scientific psychology -uses methods of introspection to explore the human mind Mind combines subjective emotions with objective sensations Titchner- school of Structuralism
William James • Rejects structuralism • Functionalism- focuses on the evolved function of mental and behavioral processes
WAVE TWO: Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt Psychology • Max Wertheimer- examines total experience • The whole is different from the sum of the parts • Consciousness can only be studied holistically
WAVE THREE: Psychodynamic
Psychodynamic Approach • Sigmund Freud (1856- • 1939) is the founder • Unconscious thought is • in conflict with conscious • behavior • Defense mechanisms- • repress unconscious
Psychodynamic Approach Psychoanalysis Free Association Dream Interpretation
WAVE Four: Behaviorism
Behavioral Approach • John B Watson (late 1800’s) founder of Behaviorism • Believes any behavior can be shaped and controlled • “Nurture”- we are born a blank slate • Rejects study of consciousness • Skinner and Pavlov- behaviorists
Contemporary Approaches and Methods
Biological Approach • Psychobiology- assumes mind and body are interrelated • Sociobiological/Evolutionary- Influenced by Darwin • Influenced by Evolutionary Theory
Cognitive Approach • Receiving, storing, and processing information • Serial and Paralleling Processing
Cognitive Approach • Natural Science • Serial Processing- step-by-step processing of information • Parallel Processing- many stimuli processed simultaneously • http://viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/15.php
Humanist Approach • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth and self-awareness • Carl Rogers- focuses ones • self-concept, or how a person • defines their own reality • -Mazlow- Self-concept is a strive for • self-actualization
Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Subfields of Psychology Basic Psychology- research Applied Psychology- research put into practice as therapist Psychiatry- a medical field- deals with mental disorders- prescribe medication
There are three main types of research methods in psychology: Descriptive Correlational Experimental
Descriptive Study: Case Study- psychologists study one individual in great depth in hopes of revealing universal principles
Case Study Pros Detailed information Unusual Cases Inexpensive Few ethical considerations
The Problem with the Case Study: An individual may be atypical Cannot generalize results Difficult to Manipulate Variables Difficult to quantify data
Naturalistic Observation Observe subjects in natural habitats without interacting
Survey Method Relies on questions answered by a group of people in interviews or questionnaires
Survey Method Experimenter must identify the population to study Random sampling picking members from a population randomly to ensure a representative sample
Wording Effects Poorly worded questions, order of choices In a study by AMNH, 88% of all respondents said that they were interested in plants and trees, but only 39% said they were interested in botany.
Correlational Studies Correlational studies assess the association between two or more characteristics of interest without ascribing causes Is a correlational study an experiment?
Correlation coefficient Example: R= + .37
Illusory Correlation When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief
Experimental Method Researcher manipulates one variable (independent variable) and observes the effect on another variable (dependent variable)
Confounding variable: external differences between the experimental group and the control group
Confounding Variables 1) Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone
Confounding Variables Demand Characteristics- participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly
How can we control for confounding variables?
How can we control for confounding variables? 1) Random Assignment method of assigning subjects to groups to minimize pre-existing differences between those groups This is an example of Between subjects design: Participants in the experimental and control group are different individuals
How can be control for confounding variables? 2) Within subjects design Technique where subjects serve as control and experimental group.
Confounding Variables Experimenter bias- researcher’s expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results Q: How can we eliminate experimenter bias?