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  2. Narcotics

  3. Stimulants

  4. Hallucinogenics

  5. Mind-Body Problem Near-death experiences raise the mind-body issue. Can the mind survive the dying body? Dualism:Dualists believe that mind (non-physical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact. Hippocrates Monism:Monists believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing. Aristotle 6

  6. HISTORICAL ORIGINS -Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -Origin of the Species introduces theories of natural selection and evolution - his ideas will give rise to the evolutionary approach to psychology

  7. WAVE ONE: Introspection

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS BORN Wilhelm Wundt’s –credited as the father of scientific psychology -uses methods of introspection to explore the human mind Mind combines subjective emotions with objective sensations Titchner- school of Structuralism

  9. William James • Rejects structuralism • Functionalism- focuses on the evolved function of mental and behavioral processes

  10. WAVE TWO: Gestalt Psychology

  11. Gestalt Psychology • Max Wertheimer- examines total experience • The whole is different from the sum of the parts • Consciousness can only be studied holistically

  12. WAVE THREE: Psychodynamic

  13. Psychodynamic Approach • Sigmund Freud (1856- • 1939) is the founder • Unconscious thought is • in conflict with conscious • behavior • Defense mechanisms- • repress unconscious

  14. Psychodynamic Approach Psychoanalysis Free Association Dream Interpretation

  15. WAVE Four: Behaviorism

  16. Behavioral Approach • John B Watson (late 1800’s) founder of Behaviorism • Believes any behavior can be shaped and controlled • “Nurture”- we are born a blank slate • Rejects study of consciousness • Skinner and Pavlov- behaviorists

  17. Contemporary Approaches and Methods

  18. Biological Approach • Psychobiology- assumes mind and body are interrelated • Sociobiological/Evolutionary- Influenced by Darwin • Influenced by Evolutionary Theory

  19. Cognitive Approach • Receiving, storing, and processing information • Serial and Paralleling Processing

  20. Cognitive Approach • Natural Science • Serial Processing- step-by-step processing of information • Parallel Processing- many stimuli processed simultaneously • http://viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/15.php

  21. Humanist Approach • Emphasizes the potential for individual growth and self-awareness • Carl Rogers- focuses ones • self-concept, or how a person • defines their own reality • -Mazlow- Self-concept is a strive for • self-actualization

  22. Humanist Approach

  23. Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

  24. Subfields of Psychology Basic Psychology- research Applied Psychology- research put into practice as therapist Psychiatry- a medical field- deals with mental disorders- prescribe medication

  25. There are three main types of research methods in psychology: Descriptive Correlational Experimental

  26. Descriptive Study: Case Study- psychologists study one individual in great depth in hopes of revealing universal principles

  27. Case Study Pros Detailed information Unusual Cases Inexpensive Few ethical considerations

  28. The Problem with the Case Study: An individual may be atypical Cannot generalize results Difficult to Manipulate Variables Difficult to quantify data

  29. Naturalistic Observation Observe subjects in natural habitats without interacting

  30. Naturalistic Observation

  31. Survey Method Relies on questions answered by a group of people in interviews or questionnaires

  32. Survey Method Experimenter must identify the population to study Random sampling picking members from a population randomly to ensure a representative sample

  33. Survey Method

  34. Wording Effects Poorly worded questions, order of choices In a study by AMNH, 88% of all respondents said that they were interested in plants and trees, but only 39% said they were interested in botany.

  35. Correlational Studies Correlational studies assess the association between two or more characteristics of interest without ascribing causes Is a correlational study an experiment?

  36. Correlation coefficient Example: R= + .37

  37. Correlational Studies

  38. Correlational Studies

  39. Illusory Correlation When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief

  40. Research Methods

  41. Experimental Method Researcher manipulates one variable (independent variable) and observes the effect on another variable (dependent variable)

  42. Confounding variable: external differences between the experimental group and the control group

  43. Confounding Variables 1) Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone

  44. Confounding Variables Demand Characteristics- participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly

  45. How can we control for confounding variables?

  46. How can we control for confounding variables? 1) Random Assignment method of assigning subjects to groups to minimize pre-existing differences between those groups This is an example of Between subjects design: Participants in the experimental and control group are different individuals

  47. How can be control for confounding variables? 2) Within subjects design Technique where subjects serve as control and experimental group.

  48. Confounding Variables Experimenter bias- researcher’s expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results Q: How can we eliminate experimenter bias?