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Biotechnology - engineering of organisms for useful purposes DNA Fingerprinting Cloning
What is DNA Fingerprinting? • The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. • The only difference between people (or any animal) is the order of the base pairs. • There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a unique and individual sequence.
What is DNA Fingerprinting? • Because there are so many millions of base pairs, the task of identifying EVERY base pair would be very time-consuming. • Instead, scientists analyze small segments of DNA where the base sequences tend to be the most variable(~ 3 million bases) between individuals. (About 13 locations not coding for genetic traits) • The likelihood that any 2 people would share the same DNA profile is 1 in a quintillion (18 0’s) • Scientists are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people.
How is a DNA fingerprint made? • 1) Restriction enzymes are added to the DNA sample to cut it up into smaller pieces or fragments
How is a DNA fingerprint made? • 2) Fragments are pulled through a gel (by an electrical charge) and distribute according to the size of the fragment
How is a DNA fingerprint made? • 3) An x-ray picture is taken of this distribution and then can be compared to other DNA samples
How is a DNA Fingerprint made? • Different people have different restriction enzyme “cut sites” Resulting in different sized DNA fragments. Person 1 Person 2 Resulting in different band patterns on a gel
What is DNA Fingerprinting used for? • Paternity/Maternity testing • Criminal investigations (proving guilt & innocence!) • Identification of 9/11 victims & other human remains • about 20,000 pieces of human remains were collected, a database of the victims’ DNA profiles was created • Super Bowl XXXIV Footballs • Marked with invisible, yet permanent, strand of synthetic DNA • 2000 Summer Olympic Souvenirs • Human DNA (Australian athletes) added to ink used to mark all official goods
What is DNA Fingerprinting used for? Identify endangered and protected species as an aid to wildlife officials (could be used for prosecuting poachers) Detect bacteria and other organisms that may pollute air, water, soil, and food Match organ donors with recipients in transplant programs Determine pedigree for seed or livestock breeds Authenticate consumables such as caviar and wine