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Professor Dr. Richard C. Hunter University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 4 th Annual International Education Conference Tarlac State University, Tarlac City, Philippines May 16-20, 2012. Paper: Leadership and Technology in Public Education in the United States.

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professor dr richard c hunter university of illinois at urbana champaign

Professor Dr. Richard C. HunterUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

4th Annual International Education Conference

Tarlac State University, Tarlac City, Philippines

May 16-20, 2012

paper leadership and technology in public education in the united states
Paper: Leadership and Technology in Public Education in the United States
  • Thank-you for attending this session.
  • Also, thanks to the conference organizers for giving me this opportunity to present my research.
  • This is my first visit to the Philippines.
  • This is a beautiful country, which is filled with extremely friendly people.
  • Why did I elect to write this paper on technology?
    • I am not an extremely technologically sophisticated person.
    • This is not the primary line of my research.
    • I had a five book series contract with a major publisher and a colleague convinced me to co-author one of the books on technology.
my professional higher education background
My Professional Higher Education Background
  • Before discussing my paper, I would like to review some of my experiences in higher education, which areprimarily the result of serving as a tenured full professor at two research one institutions in the United States.
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where I currently teach courses in educational administration and advise master’s and doctoral students. Also, I was a former head of the department at this institution.
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where I: taught educational administration courses, advised master’s and doctoral students and was program chair.
my professional higher education background1
My Professional Higher Education Background
  • In these roles, I have written several co-edited books and many book chapters, journal articles, monographs, and conference proposals.
  • The primary focus of my research is on urban education.
professional public school background
Professional Public School Background

My public education experience has primarily been in urban public school districts and includes being a/an:

  • Classroom teacher, assistant principal, and principal.
    • Associate director for education with DODEA.
  • Superintendent of schools for three large school districts city public school districts:
      • Richmond, Virginia; Dayton, Ohio; and Baltimore, Maryland.
my interest in technology
My Interest in Technology
  • My interest in technology grew out of my work experiences discussed in the previous slides. These experiences helped me arrive at these understandings:
    • Technology is very powerful.
    • This is evident in the military, business, industry, and in our daily lives.
    • And, it is even true for higher education and public education.
    • Technology has led to increased productivity in many businesses and industries.
my interest in technology1
My Interest in Technology
  • While working in public education, I have witnessed several changes and received several recognitions for my interest in technology.
      • Personally, I witnessed the impact of technology in management.
    • Steve Jobs, Apple; Bill Gates, Microsoft; and John Kettering at IBM and NCR.
    • And, anticipated it would also influence public education.
    • I conducted research on the use of computers, Control Data system.
    • Computer on my desk.
my interest in technology2
My Interest in Technology
  • Leadership awards from a national organizations.
  • Several awards from local educational and community groups.
  • Later work with DODEA.
  • This is evident in the military, business, and industry.
  • It is even true for higher education and public education.
  • Today, in the United States we are outsources work to places, such as India.
  • Again, I began to understand the immense power of technology.
my interest in technology3
My Interest in Technology
  • Technology has led to increased productivity in many businesses and industries.
  • We have been undergoing efforts to reform public education in the United States and elsewhere.
  • Larry Cuban (2001) says “the more we change the more we stay the same”.
background on leadership
Background on Leadership
  • In my paper, which is available in conference publications, I discuss selected theories of leadership to create a framework for my recommendations:
    • Kowalski (2003) indicated that leadership is the process of influencing others.
    • McGregor’s (1978) theory x and y describes the attitudes of workers about their work.
    • Burns (1978) presented concepts on transactional and transformational leadership.
    • Sergiovanni’s stresses the need for moral leadership.
importance of visioning
Importance of Visioning
  • In the paper, I discuss the importance of visioning, which also supports my recommendations.
    • Daft (1999) said “that visions link the future with the past and that a vision is not just a dream, but an ambitious view of what a school or organization could become.”
    • Senge (1990) indicated that leaders of learning cannot learn apart for the organization and they must empower the organization to learn.
    • Starratt (1993) indicated that a collective vision is used to provide direction for the school.
    • Matthews & Crow (2003) maintains that visions must be developed with all stakeholders.
    • My experience with ESP3 in Richmond.
background on technology
Background on Technology
  • Glennan & Melmed (1996) indicated that between 1983 and 1995 the student to computer ratio, nationwide was reduced from 125 to 9.
  • Grunwald (2004) reported over 8 in 10 homes, with children, had a computer connected to the Internet.
  • Roberts (2004) said, “in 1994, slightly more than one-third of schools and just 3% of classrooms had access to the Internet. Today, all elementary and secondary schools and over 92% of classrooms are connected”.
background on technology1
Background on Technology
  • Avci (2001) reminded us the primary use of technology in schools is for instruction and management.
  • Tooms, et al (2004) indicated there are four phases of computer technology in public education:
    • Phase one in the 1960s, focused on the use of mainframes, primarily for administrative tasks.
    • Phase two in the 1970s, involved the use of personal computers for administration tasks.
    • Phase three in the 1990s, involved the Internet and provided a different level of communication.
    • Phase four-is still evolving and is represented by wireless technology and hand held computers.
evaluation of technology
Evaluation of Technology
  • Research on the use of technology in public schools is mixed and overall it is seems to not be very promising.
    • Norton, et al (2003) reported that the impact of technology over the past 25 years on education had been essentially zero.
    • Bielefldt (2005) reported no significant effect on math and reading achievement.
    • Cuban (2000) indicated computing in K-12 education had not produced positive results, as relates to student achievement.
    • NCREL’s (n.d.) synthesis of research on technology and student outcomes revealed a small, positive, significant (p<.05) effect, when compared to traditional instruction.
evaluation of technology1
Evaluation of Technology
    • The Massachusetts Department of Education’s (1998) review of the Milken Report, indicated that under the right conditions students may experience increased test scores by using computer techn0logy.
  • Johnson (2004) indicated today’s students are text messaging and sending digital photographs to each other on cell phones.
  • Kuttan & Peters (2003) revealed home Internet access for households in the United States earning $49,000 annually increased from 29.9% in 1998 to 46.1% in 2000.
problems with technology
Problems With Technology
  • Cuban (1999) reported the structure for teaching has not changed overtime and limits the use of technology in instruction.
  • Beem (2002) said it is difficult for schools to keep up with technology.
  • Zhao & Frank (2003) presented several factors that have slowed the integration of computer technology into classroom instruction. They are presented on the next slide:
problems with technology1
Problems With Technology
  • The process for teachers to integrate computer technology in their classrooms takes time, and time is something teachers do not have much of.
  • Schools are slow to implement change.
  • Schools are social organizations and some at odds with the use of computer technology.
  • Teachers believe direct teaching or lectures is the best way to impart knowledge to students.
problems with technology2
Problems With Technology
  • Many teachers do not hold positive attitudes about the use of technology in instruction.
  • The constant changing nature of technology works against its being effectively integrated into classroom instruction.
  • The unreliable nature of computer technology and the structure of short classes does not facilitate teachers investing large amounts of time preparing lessons whichintegrate computers into instruction.
costs of technology
Costs of Technology
  • How much are we spending on computer technology in schools?
    • Hurst (2005) says we have spent millions of dollars in the United States on computer technology in public education.
    • Technology Counts (2005) U.S. schools spend an average of $103 per pupil on educational technology. The state of New York spends the most, and Mississippi spends the least.
    • Trotter (2005) reported the largest expenditures for technology was awarded by the United States Congress, who allocated $14.3 billion by 2004-2005.
relating to the costs of technology
Relating to the Costs of Technology
  • Strengthen leadership.
  • Use budget innovations.
  • Improve teacher training.
  • Expand broad Internet access.
  • Use more digital content.
  • Integrate data systems.
  • Harmonize goals with other technology grants.
leadership for technology
Leadership for Technology
  • Fullan (2001) provided four ways to view the complexity of leadership in schools. They are:
    • Changes are more complex, than most realize.
    • It is a difficult dilemma to decide what to do.
    • Administrators need to act differently in various phases of the change process.
    • Advise received by computer experts should be viewed as only guidelines and not as absolutes.
the author s recommendation
The Author’s Recommendation
  • The author makes several recommendations about what should be done to improve computer usage in classroom instruction in public schools. They are:
    • Develop a long-range vision for a school district, regarding its efforts to integrate computer technology into student instruction.
    • Expand professional development for teachers, curriculum specialists, and principals to assist them with modeling and supporting teacher efforts to integrate computers into their classrooms.
    • Create Cyber schools.
the author s recommendations
The Author’s Recommendations
  • Create a department, whose primary mission it is to integrate computer technology in the curriculum of the school district.
  • Develop partnerships with business, industry, employee unions, parent groups, and community leaders to obtain resources andsupport for the costly implementation of the vision for integrating computer technology in the district’s instructional program.
  • Form a consortium of school districts, local colleges and universities, business leaders, and others who would become a ‘think tank’ and would keep abreast with changes in technology and the development of applications for integrating technology into the classrooms.
the author s recommendations1
The Author’s Recommendations
  • Develop a plan to upgrade the district’s computer technology infrastructure.
  • Provide technical assistance personnel that are assigned to schools.
  • Seek an understanding with employee unions regarding the development of ways to alter the traditional instructional paradigm, such as creating longer instructional periods by using block scheduling, etc.
  • The author knows this will be very expensive and recommends priorities be established, as to which strategies will be pursued.
the author s recommendations2
The Author’s Recommendations
  • Create a demonstration or laboratory school that would be able to show how the new technologies can be integrated into the instructional program.
  • Provide funds for release time for teachers and professional development on how to use the technology in their instruction.

Educators have a tremendous challenge to achieve greater integration of computer technology in schools, while at the same time they improve student achievement. These values are not mutually exclusive and need to be worked on together. The shortage of funds and the ongoing need to constantly upgrade to the technology infrastructure are indeed serious problems to overcome. Nevertheless, we will not make progress until we develop a bold vision. Also, we must overcome the many obstacles that are impeding our progress. The recommendations presented by the author are very costly and intimidating, but they are not impossible. We need a bold vision and a multifaceted approach with long-range, mid-range, and short-range goals. These goals will help to harness the imagination of our stakeholders and provide the resources needed. If schools are to become more productive, they will need to use technology to achieve this, as business and industry has done.

Thank-you again for this opportunity to speak with you and now I will entertain questions from the audience.