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u s history
U.S. History
  • Wednesday, Nov. 7
    • You will need a full sheet of paper to start notes for the Unit
      • Increasing Influences and Challenges
      • You will be using them for Daily Learning Target Assessments and then handing them in, so writing information down is important.
  • What do you think this means? Write down a definition.
  • Definition: The extension of a nation’s power over other lands.
  • Based on this definition, is the United States an imperialistic country in 2012? Explain.
the big picture
The Big Picture
  • U.S. foreign relations took a new turn at the end of the 19th century. Global competition for empire led the U.S. into war with Spain and intervention in Latin America. The U.S. forged a new role as an emerging world power.
  • What inspired imperialist activity?
  • How did the U.S. gain lands?
  • What caused the Spanish-American War?
  • How did actions within America push us into war?
  • How did the U.S. treat conquered or acquired lands?
i can
I can. . .
  • Evaluate, take, and defend positions on the various U.S. foreign policies in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
  • Analyze the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War
  • Identify and evaluate the factors that influenced U.S. imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the ensuing debate over imperialism
what led to the u s quest
What led to the U.S. quest?
  • Economic Interests
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Close of the Frontier
  • Military Needs
    • Alfred Thayer Mahan
what led to the u s quest1
What led to the U.S. quest?
  • Example of European Nations
    • The scramble for territory
  • Ideology
    • American Nationalism
    • Josiah Strong’s Our Country
first acquisitions
First Acquisitions
  • Alaska
    • Purchased from Russia (1867)
      • Sec. of State William Seward
        • Reduce foreign possessions in NA
        • Vast natural resources
    • Statehood (1959)
    • Importance
      • Resources: timber, fur, fish, coal, oil, gold
      • Polar air routes
      • Close to Russia (air bases)
first acquisitions1
First Acquisitions
  • Hawaii
    • Acquired (Taken!)
      • Supply and fueling station
      • Drew missionaries
      • American investors
    • Statehood (1959)
    • Importance
      • Sugar and pineapples
      • Pearl Harbor
how it happened
How it happened
  • Wealthy white planters gained influence and power within Hawaiian society due to prosperous sugar sales to the U.S.
  • A group plots against the king and forces him to sign a new constitution in 1887 – the Bayonet Const. (Pearl Harbor ours)
  • 1890 – when the economy went south they try to restore control (U.S. ousts Liliuokalani in 1893; annexed in 1898)
the spanish american war

The Spanish-American War

An American Empire in the Making

simmering unrest in cuba
Simmering Unrest in Cuba
  • Cuba was a Spanish possession
  • Since 1868 they had launched a series of revolts
  • Spain was weakening
  • Jose Marti
    • Exiled in NY, he forms the Cuban Revolutionary Party (1892) and leads a revolt in 1895
the butcher
The Butcher
  • Spain responds with ValerianoWeyler
    • Camps set up for civilians
      • Some 200,000 die
why u s interest
Why U.S. interest?
  • Geographic proximity – 90 miles away
  • Economic interests - $100 mil. in trade; $50 mil. invested
  • Humanitarian concerns – deaths of especially women and children due to hunger and disease
the media s role
The Media’s Role
  • American’s were already sympathetic
    • American tradition of Revolution
    • Plus it gets a European nation out
  • But the “information” they received concerning Weyler fed it
  • Two competing media moguls are key
    • William Randolph Hearst – NY Journal
    • Joseph Pulitzer – NY World
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Scandalous stories and large shocking illustrations
  • Sensationalized news stories
  • They sent reporters, but relied on Cuban sources
the de lome letter
The de Lome Letter
  • President McKinley was openly criticized by Spain’s Minister to the U.S.
  • Cuban spy acquires it
  • Published in the NY Journal
  • In February
the explosion of the maine
The Explosion of the Maine
  • The U.S.S. Maine had been sent to Havana Harbor on a visit (protection; show of force)
  • Feb. 15, 1898 – the Maine mysteriously explodes: 260 killed
  • Yellow journalists go into high gear
  • But no declaration of war until April 25th
war in the philippines
War in the Philippines
  • The first action took place here because that is where the Spanish fleet was
  • Adm. George Dewey sent here by Asst. Sec. of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt
  • Dewey held his fire (nearest resupply was 7,000 miles away)
  • We had new steel-hulled and iron ships
  • Took only hours
war in cuba
War in Cuba
  • Teller Amendment – we will not take you over
  • U.S. military not prepared:
    • Wool uniforms
    • Bad beef
    • Hodge-podge of soldiers
war in cuba1
War in Cuba
  • Rough Riders – led by Teddy Roosevelt
  • Buffalo soldiers
  • Cavalry unit – not really; horses left in America or drowned
consequences of the war
Consequences of the War
  • Treaty of Paris
    • Spain gives up claims to Cuba
    • Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to U.S.
    • Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million
  • It was a “Splendid Little War”
  • But cost $250 million and 2,000 lives (most from yellow fever)
arguments for annexing the philippines
Arguments for Annexing the Philippines
  • Duty to spread values and culture
    • Christianize the Filipinos
  • Economic and strategic importance
    • Trade routes to China and the rest of the Asian markets
    • Get it before it falls to a European power
opponent s views
Opponent’s Views
  • It’s a violation of our own Declaration of Independence (the idea of self government)
  • African Americans didn’t want to export oppression
  • It would open the door to new immigrants
  • It would undercut the American worker
american rule
American Rule
  • Annexation in 1899
  • Rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo
    • He had already set up a new government and proclaimed himself president
    • He was prepared to fight
american rule1
American Rule
  • The Insurrection
    • 3 years by U.S. accounts; until 1913 by the Filipinos
    • 4,000 U.S. deaths
    • 200,000+ Filipino deaths (about 20,000 military; the rest “as a result of the war and disease”) Some estimates as high as 1 mil.
    • They call it the Philippine-American War
american rule2
American Rule
  • Charges of brutality and torture on both sides
  • Many famous Americans were outspoken against this conflict
    • American Anti-Imperialist League formed
    • William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie