Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Botany Handbook for Florida Master Gardener Training Instructor: Ann McMullian Indian River State College
Plant Names Nomenclature
Plant nomenclature (use of scientific names)Common name vs. Scientific name (botanical name)
Common names are more widely used because they are easier to pronounce and remember. Common names only have value if both persons know exactly which plant is being discussed. This only happens when people are from the same area or community.
To prevent confusion it is recommended to use both the scientific and common name.
Each plant has a scientific name.Example: Magnolia grandifloraThe two-word (binomial) scientific name is made up off:Genus + specific epithet = Species
Magnolia grandiflora↑The specific epithet describes a characteristic of the plant.The scientific name is italicized or underlined.The Genus is capitalized. The specific epithet is not capitalized.
Classification • Plant Kingdom • Lichens and mosses (no leaves, roots, etc) • Ferns (no flower with seeds, spores instead) • Seed producing plants • Gymnospermae (Gymnosperm) • Angiospermae (Angiosperm)
Plant Kingdom • Non-vascular (Bryophytes) • Vascular • Spore bearing (Pteridophyta) • Seed bearing (Spermatophyta or Spermopsida) • Gymnosperm (Cone bearing, naked seed) Examples: pines, podocarpus, ginkgo, cycads • Angiosperm (Non-cone bearing, covered seed) • Monocotyledon (grasses, grains, palms, lilies, onions) • Dicotyledon
Gymnosperm Slash Pine
Angiosperm • Flowering Plants • Seed protected by Fruit • Two main groups (divisions): • Monocotyledoneae (Monocots) • Dicotyledoneae (Dicots)
Root Functions: • anchor plant • support the stem • absorb and conduct water and minerals • store food
Two types of roots: • - fibrous roots, highly branched, slender • - tap roots, main enlarged root.
Water and Nutrient Uptake Water and nutrient uptake is done by millions of thin walled root hairs.
Nutrient uptake Secondary roots • Primary root Nutrient and water up take: Root hairs –> secondary root –> primary root –> stems and leaves.
Some different type or roots: • Adventitious roots • Fleshy roots • Aerial roots • Knees ( pneumatophores)
Adventitious Roots:Roots that do no originate off the primary root Prop roots
Fleshy roots – food reserve Beets Turnip Carrot
Aerial Roots Banyan Tree
Knees or Pneumatophores Mangrove Knees or pneumatophores enable plants to obtain air in swampy conditions Bald Cypress
Stem Types • Crowns – short inconspicuous • Simple – without branches • Branched • Climbing • Creeping • Rhizomes • Stolons
CrownsShort inconspicuous stem Gerbera daisy Dandelion
Food Storage in stems Asparagus Celery
Many herbaceous perennials have some type of modified stems. • Examples of modified stems: • Rhizomes • Stolons • Tubers • Corms • Bulbs
Rhizomes – the main stem of a plant, horizontal, underground. Ginger
Bulbs are short, thickened, underground stem with thick storage leaves making up the bulk.
Leaf and Stem Arrangement A stem has nodes and internodes. Nodes are where leaves or buds are attached.
Leaf arrangement: • alternate • opposite • whorled