ESS 303 - Biomechanics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ESS 303 - Biomechanics

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  1. ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements andThe Skeletal System

  2. Basic Movements • Head: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, R/L Lateral Flexion, R/L Rotation, & Circumduction • Trunk: Same as above • Shoulder: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Abduction, Adduction, Hyperabduction, Hyperadduction, Horizontal Abduction, Horizontal Adduction, Med/Lat Rotation, & Circumduction

  3. Basic Movements (Cont.) • Sternoclavicular: Elevation & Depression • Acromioclavicular: Abduction, Adduction (Protraction & Retraction), & Upward/Downward Rotation • Elbow: Flexion, Extension, & Hyperextension • Radioulnar: Pronation, & Supination • Wrist: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Radial Flexion, Ulnar Flexion, & Circumduction

  4. Basic Movements (Cont.) • Metacarpophalangeal (Fingers): Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Abduction, Adduction, & Circumduction • Thumb • Interphalangeal: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension • Carpometacarpal: Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Opposition, & Circumduction • Metacarpophalangeal: Flexion & Extension

  5. Basic Movements (Cont.) • Hip: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Abduction, Adduction, Hyperadduction, Horizontal Abduction, Horizontal Adduction, Med/Lat Rotation, & Circumduction • Knee: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, & Med/Lat Rotation • Ankle: Plantar Flexion, Dorsiflexion • Intertarsal: Inversion, & Eversion

  6. Basic Movements (Cont.) • Metatarsophalangeal: Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, & Circumduction • Interphalangeal: Flexion, & Extension

  7. Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton

  8. Internal Structure of Bone • Epiphyseal line • Medulary Cavity • Epiphysis • Diaphysis • Spongy • Trabeculae • Compact

  9. Internal Structure of Bone

  10. Internal Structure of Bone

  11. Bone Remodeling Cycle

  12. Stress & Tissue Adaptation (Remodeling) Pathological Overload Zone Distress (Injury) Overload Zone Eustress (Adaptation) Physiological Loading Zone Maintenance Under-loading Zone Distress (Atrophy)

  13. Stress & Strain • Stress: Force within a structure (internal) divided by the cross-sectional area • Strain: Measured deformation of an object as a result of stress • Linear: A change in the object’s length • Shear: A change in an object’s orientation of adjacent molecules

  14. Strain Stress

  15. Strain Stress

  16. Basic Types Tension: Tensile Stress & Strain (Stretching) Strain Stress

  17. Strain Basic Types Compressive Stress & Strain Stress

  18. Basic Types Shear Stress & Strain Strain Stress

  19. Mechanical Loads: Bending

  20. Mechanical Loads: Torsion

  21. Types of Bone • Long (Femur) • Short (Carpals) • Flat (Scapula & Ribs) • Irregular (Skull & Vertebrae) • Sesamoid (Patella)

  22. Articulations • Synarthrodial (Sutures of skull) • Amphiarthrodial (Between vertebrae) • Diarthrodial (Common)

  23. Planes & Axes

  24. Sagittal Plane (Anterioposterior or Median) Frontal Plane (Coronal) Transverse Plane (Horizontal)

  25. Sagittal-Horizontal Axis Frontal-Horizontal Axis Vertical Axis