provinces of afghanistan nimruz n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Nimruz PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Nimruz

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 73
Download Presentation

PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Nimruz - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

ellie
97 Views
Download Presentation

PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN Nimruz

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTANNimruz

  2. OVERVIEW • Module introduces you to Nimruz • Emphasis on: • Geography & topography • Human terrain • Recent history • Economics • Politics • Security situation • District levels

  3. BLOCK 1: GEOGRAPHY

  4. GEOGRAPHY • Location: • Southern Afghanistan • Borders Iran & Pakistan • Area: 20,980 square miles • Terrain: • Mostly flat desert terrain • Margow, Khash, Gowd-e Zereh deserts • Helmand, Farah & Khashrud Rivers • Salt flats

  5. Farah Farah River Khash Desert Khash River IRAN Helmand Margow Desert Helmand River Gowd-e Zereh Desert Zerch Depression PAKISTAN

  6. DUST STORM

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • Relies on river-fed irrigation • 2-3 inches of rain/yr average • Recent years: only 1/10 inch • Main sources of water: • Helmand • Khash • …all but dried up • Causing increasing desertification • Dam Helmand River? Iran opposed

  8. BLOCK 2: HUMAN TERRAIN

  9. POPULATION DATA

  10. HUMAN TERRAIN • Population: 150,000 • 95% rural • Ethnic composition: • Baluch majority • Brahui • Pashtun • Nurzai • Kuchi • Tajiks • Languages: Pashto, Baluch

  11. Tajik Baluch, Brahui Nurzai Mixed Durrani Source: Naval Postgraduate School

  12. BALUCH • Speak Indo-European language • Related to Farsi, Kurdish • Found in Nimruz • Also found in: • Helmand • Kandahar • States with large Baluch populations: • Iran • Pakistan

  13. BALUCH (Cont’d) • Historical pattern: • Pakistani Baluch uprisings • Pak army crushes them • Baluch leaders flee to Afghanistan • Leaders find support from Afghan officials • Pakistan complains • Proxy wars renewed • Iran Baluch also increasingly restless

  14. BALUCH AND INSURGENCY • Taliban primarily Pashtun insurgency • Close ties between Baluch and Pashtuns • But no Baluch in senior Taliban leadership • Alliance of convenience: • Many Baluch = smugglers • Taliban rely on them to smuggle drugs • Drugs help fuel insurgency • Baluch know terrain of Nirmuz

  15. BRAHUI • Small minority ethnic group • Co-ethnics in Iran and Pakistan • Found in: • Kandahar • Helmand • Nimruz • Farah • Tribally based

  16. BRAHUI • Sunni • Speak Dravidian tongue • Incomprehensible to Baluch, Pashtuns • Relatives in India • Heavily reliant on smuggling

  17. MAIN BRAHUI TRIBES

  18. NURZAI TRIBE DurraniPanjpai Numbers: around 1 million Found in: Kandahar Helmand Farah Herat Zabul Nimruz

  19. NURZAI TRIBE Poorer, disenfranchised Sense marginalization Trading, smuggling, drugs Tribal opponents: Achekzais Close links to Taliban Hafiz AbdurMajid (Shura Council) HajiBashirNurzai (in U.S. prison)

  20. Dravidian languages

  21. BLOCK 3: HISTORY

  22. EARLY HISTORY • Astride key trade routes • Persia-India • Saffarid Dynasty • 861-1003 AD • Capital in Zaranj • Founder: Yaqub bin Laith al-Saffar • Humble origins – a coppersmith • Empire included parts of Persia, India • Language of rule: Persian

  23. TAMERLANE • Timur-e Lang • Turkish/Mongolian origins • 1370: proclaimed emperor at Balkh • 1398: sacked Delhi • Destroyed Helmand River irrigation • Result: • Population decline • Desertification • Sistan basin has never recovered…

  24. RECENT HISTORY • Minor insurgency in 1980s • Not major war theater • Ambushed Soviet/DRA convoys • On Ring Road • Delaram-Zaranj highway • Exploited local terrain of canals, ditches • Active parties in 1980s, 1990s • Harakat-e Inqilabi (Mohammadi) • Hezb-e IslamiKhalis

  25. COME THE TALIBAN • Spring 1995: Taliban shift west • Moved along Kandahar-Herat highway • Heavy fighting around Delaram • Taliban vs Ismail Khan’s forces • Many local Pashtuns defect to Taliban • Initial Taliban setback around Shindand • Retreat to Kandahar • Then recovered Nimruz, September 1995

  26. INDIAN SUCCESS STORY • India paved Delaram-Zaranj road • 215 km - crosses Nimruz Province • Links Iran’s Chahbahar-Zaranj road • Work completed Jan 2009 • Insurgents attacked contractors • Pakistani suspicion: • India & Iran cooperation • Goal: divert traffic to Chahbahar • Goal: weaken Pak Gwadar port • Goal: Indian goods to Afghanistan

  27. BLOCK 4: ECONOMY

  28. ECONOMY • Smuggling dominant • Oil • Poppy • Agricultural economy: • Drought = major problem • Based on Helmand River • Wheat, corn & poppies • Animal husbandry • Remittances from Iran very important • Trade with Iran

  29. BLOCK 5: POLITICS

  30. GOVERNOR KARIM BRAHUI • Born in 1955 in Nimruz • Brahui • Muj commander against Soviets • Commander ‘Southern Front’ • Opposed Taliban • 1995: • Retreated to Iran after Taliban 1995 advance • Minister for Refugees (2009-2010)

  31. INFAMOUS CITIZEN • HajiJuma Khan • One time drug lord & smuggler • Contacts in Iran, Turkey, Dubai, Pakistan • Reportedly born in Nimruz • Brahui tribe • Headquarters were in Zaranj • Large drug convoys through Iran to Turkey • Also down to Makran coast and then to UAE • Extradited to US, indicted for drug trafficking

  32. BLOCK 6: SECURITY

  33. NIMRUZ SECURITY • Ring road: key insurgent target • Crossed Nimruz at Delaram • Most attacks in south focused on Zaranj • Suicide bombing attempt in Zaranj, Dec 2008 • Suicide bombing in Zaranj, Jan 2009 • 10 killed, 20 wounded • Suicide bombing in Zaranj, May 2010 • 13 dead • No PRT, foreign troops

  34. BLOCK 7: DISTRICTS

  35. DISTRICT GOVERNMENT • Sub-Governor (woluswal) • Police Chief • NDS Officer • Some Ministry sub-Departments • Taliban shadow governments

  36. CHAHAR BURJA DISTRICT: Geography • Also called Charborjak • Location: central Nimruz • Area: 21,864 sq km • Borders Iran and Pakistan • Terrain: • Desert plain

  37. CHAHAR BURJA DISTRICT: Human Terrain • District center:ChaharBorjak • Villages: 65 • Est. population: 8,200 • Ethnicity: • Baluch majority • Brahui • Pashtuns

  38. CHAHAR BURJA DISTRICT: Economy • Crops: • Wheat • Poppy • Animal husbandry: • Goats • Sheep • Camels

  39. CHAHAR BURJA DISTRICT: Economy • Other: • Smuggling (poppy/heroin) • Poppy cultivation & processing • Remittances from Iran • Reported untapped oil reserves

  40. CHAHAR BURJA DISTRICT: Development • Education: • Primary schools: 9 • Secondary schools: 1 • Health care: • Clinics: 3 • Common diseases: • Diarrhea, tuberculosis, pneumonia • Transportation: • Graveled roads: 180 km

  41. CHAHAR BURJA & POPPY • 2004: HajiJuma Khan bought Rudbar village • Located in eastern ChaharBurja • Lies astride roads to tri-border area • Intended to hand it over to his tribe • Cultivate poppy and wheat • Considerable sums spent on: • Irrigation canals • Creation of artificial lake • Electricity generators • Palm trees

  42. CHAKANSUR DISTRICT • Also Chakhansor • Location: northern Nimruz • Borders: • Helmand province • Farah province • Area: 9,699 square kilometers • Terrain: • Desert plain