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Asperger Syndrome. Autistic Disorder. Autistic disorder is marked by three defining features with onset before age 3: Qualitative impairment of social interaction (i.e.. lack of social or emotion reciprocity);

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autistic disorder
Autistic Disorder

Autistic disorder is marked by three defining features with onset before age 3:

  • Qualitative impairment of social interaction (i.e.. lack of social or emotion reciprocity);
  • Qualitative impairment of communication ( i.e.. delay or total absence of spoken language); and
  • Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (i.e.. president preoccupation with parts of objects).
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  • The combination of behavioral deficits (e.g., self-stimulation, bizarre and challenging behaviors) makes children with “classical autism” stand out as strikingly different from most children.
definition
Definition

Asperger Syndrome is at the mild end of the autism spectrum. The most distinguished feature is impairments in all social areas, particularly in inability understand how to interact socially (Safran, 2002).

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  • Children with Asperger syndrome do not have general language delay, and most have average or above-average intelligence.
  • Individuals with high functioning autism are distinguished from those with Asperger syndrome because autism is associated with marked early language delay.
other characteristics of asperger syndrome
Other characteristics of Asperger syndrome
  • Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, perseveration
  • Intense interest in a particular subject, often atypical things or parts of things (e.g., tractors or washing-machine motors), to the exclusion of everything else
  • Preoccupation with one’s own interests
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  • Clumsiness, difficulty with fine-and/or gross-motor activities
  • Impaired use of nonverbal behaviors related to social interaction such as eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures
  • Inflexible adherence to routines
  • Fascination with maps, globes, and routes
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  • Superior rote memory, tendency to amass many related facts
  • Difficulty judging personal space
  • Speech and language skills impaired in the area of semantics, pragmatics, and prosody (volume, intonation, inflection, and rhythm)
  • Difficulty understanding others’ feelings
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  • Pedantic, odd speech patterns; formal style of speaking
  • Extensive vocabulary, reading commences at an early age (hyperlexia)
  • Perfectionist, frustrated when asked to submit work one feels is below standard
asperger syndrome10
Asperger Syndrome
  • Their peculiarities and lack of social skills make it very hard for children with Asperger syndrome to develop and maintain friendships. Because they have normal or above-normal intelligence and often are highly verbal, students with Asperger syndrome are sometimes misdiagnosed or considered slackers by teachers and peers.
dsm iv diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder
  • A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2), and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3):
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  • 1. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
  • a. Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction.
  • b. Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level.
  • c. A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest).
  • d. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
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  • 2. Qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:
  • a. Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gestures or mime).
  • b. In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairments in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others.
  • c. Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language.
  • d. Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.
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  • 3. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities as manifested by at least one of the following:
  • a. Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotypic and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus.
  • b. Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
  • c. Stereotypic and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hang or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements).
  • d. Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.
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  • Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the two following areas with onset prior to age 3 years: (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) symbolic or imaginative play.
  • The disturbance is not better accounted for be Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.
dsm iv diagnostic criteria for asperger syndrome
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome
  • Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
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  • Marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye to eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gesture to regulate social interaction

(2) Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level

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(3) A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interest, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people)

(4) Lack of social or emotional reciprocity

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  • Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

(1) Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus

(2) Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals

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(3) Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)

(4) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

  • The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
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  • There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
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  • There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.
  • Criteria are not met for another specific pervasive developmental disorder or schizophrenia.