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  1. MICA Knowledge Exchange and Information Centre (KEIC) Literature Search Citation and References Plagiarism Gateway to Knowledge

  2. CONDUCTING LITERATURE SEARCH Literature search is the means to bridge the gap that has created because of vast literature and lack of timeto update regularly oneself.

  3. Why Review The Literature • To familiarize yourself with previous research on your select topic • To critically determine the level of theory and knowledge development relevant to your problem • To determine the relevance of the current research • To determine a rationale for the selection of your research strategy

  4. How will the review help the research • Become aware of how others approached and resolved problems • Direct your research in different ways • Inability to find literature that will support your position of strengthen a theory or hypothesis • Help design your research based on previous good or flawed research

  5. How to conduct of literature search • Determine when to do a research • Delimit what is searched • Access data base for periodicals and documents • Organize the information • Critically evaluate the literature • Write the literature review

  6. When to do a research • A literature review always comes first and proceeds the final formulation of a research question and the implementation of the study

  7. Delimiting the research • Before beginning a search, the researchers needs to set parameters as to what is relevant • Select parameters that will allow you a comprehensive review, but one that is practical and not overwhelming

  8. Accessing database • The most common used databases in the field of management/Communications are EBSCOS & Questia • EBSCOS & Questia provide with a very quick effective ways of researching hundreds of journals • EBSCOS is constantly undergoing changes such as full article previewing and better searching and limiting methods • Access libraryonline

  9. Organizing information • Begin organisation by reading article abstracts (Communication Abstracts, Journal of Marketing covers abstracts at the end.) • Journal articles should be categorised into a highly relevant, relevant and not relevant • Articles that are highly relevant and somewhat relevant should be read and examined critically Never miss to write the source

  10. Critically evaluating the literature • Question should be developed by the researchers to apply the articles • These questions should help limit the articles that can be used to support the research • Works that are deemed flawed or lack adequate support should be discarded

  11. Writing the literature review • The writing of the literature review is to justify your research, or for a manuscript describe the completed research project • The literature review should not only present an overview but should also critically examine the previous research

  12. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Primary Secondary Tertiary Non-Documentary Internet

  13. PRIMARY SOURCE First published records of original research and development or description of new application or new interpretation of an old theme or idea. Primary sources are published in variety of forms

  14. PERIODICALS Journals Jr. of Communication Jr. of Marketing Jr. of Marketing Research Jr. of Brand Management Visual Communication Periodicals information is more up-to-date than books

  15. PERIODICALS Bulletins AAA Bulletin AMIC Bulletin AEJMC Bulletin Transactions Proceedings or Similar Work AAA Proceedings

  16. RESEARCH REPORT Explains only research and development projects (progress report) Atomic Research

  17. RESEARCH MONOGRAPHS Separately published reports on original research e.g. Creativity and the prepared mind by Ray Hyman (National Art Education Association, Research Monograph- I)

  18. TRADE LITERATURE Source for getting information about particular products and development e.g. Textile machine

  19. DISSERTATION A candidate working towards a degree to write a dissertation under the supervision of a guide. They are usually expected to evidence of original research.

  20. UNPUBLISHED SOURCES Memoranda Diaries Letter to or from a particular individual Company file Internal research report

  21. UNPUBLISHED SOURCES State papers Inscription (Wording on a coin, medal, and seal) Portraits (Paintings) Oral history Coins

  22. SECONDARY SOURCES Information are those which either compiled from or refer to primary sources of information. This information is Modified, Selected Recognized.

  23. PERIODICALS Specialise in interpreting and providing opinions on developing reported in primary sources of information. Facts for You Economic and Political Weekly Seminar

  24. BIBLIOGRAPHIES A bibliography is an organized list of primary or other sources related to a given subject(s) or person. Bibliography on advertising

  25. INDEXING PERIODICALS Compilation of titles of articles that appear in current primary source of journals, new books, pamphlets etc. Current Index of Management Marketing

  26. ABSTRACTING PERIODICALS Compilation of concise summaries of significant articles, monographs, reports, patents, other primary source publications. Communication Abstracts Dissertation Abstracts International

  27. REVIEWS (SURVEY TYPE) Survey of the primary literature Annual Review of Consumer Research

  28. MONOGRAPHS Short treaties on a specific subject. Monograph may be brought out as a part of series. Advertising in Rural India - monograph series 36

  29. TEXTBOOK Book of instruction which enables one to develop proper understanding of the subject. Marketing Management by Philip Kotler

  30. REFERENCE BOOKS Not read from first page to last page is called reference books. Encyclopedias Dictionaries/Thesaurus Handbooks, Manuals Tables

  31. TERTIARY SOURCES Contain information distilled and collected from primary and secondary sources. Bibliography of bibliographies Directories Guide to Literature

  32. NON-DOCUMENTARY SOURCES Formal - Organization Informal - Individual

  33. SEARCH STRATEGY Subject/Topic (Impact of TV on Children) Scope (sources) Time Period to be Covered Avoid Duplication

  34. SEARCH STRATEGY Name: Eyeglasses UT: SpectaclesBT: Optical Devices NT: Sunglasses RT: Contact Lenses Brand Name, Generic Name Company Name

  35. SEARCH SOURCES form General to Specific Encyclopedia Bibliography Reviews Abstracting & Indexing Services Journals/Magazines References at the end of Publications Databases




  39. CITE REFERENCES AT END It is necessary to write used information sources at the end when you submit your assignment, project report, research report, dissertation according to the APA style manual right from the first assignment to dissertation and in practice when you are with the industry. Used by Management and Social Science Academic Community

  40. CITE REFERENCES Advantages of acknowledging one’s source accurately Enrich your written assignment Satisfaction of doing right thing High ethics Walk with your head held high Enhance your credibility without responsibility Aware of latest development Statement is wrong then author is responsible Reliable and respected source increase the credibility Directing researchers to original sources

  41. REASONS FOR USING CITATIONS Paying homage to pioneers. Giving credit for related work. Identifying methodology, equipment, etc. Providing background reading. Correcting background reading. Correcting the work of others.

  42. REASONS FOR USING CITATIONS Criticizing previous work. Substantiating claims (by proof). Alerting researchers to forthcoming work. Providing leads to poorly disseminated, poorly indexed or uncited work.

  43. REASONS FOR USING CITATIONS Authenticating data and classes of facts-physical constants etc. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept or term was discussed. Identifying the original publication describing an eponymic concept or term as Pareto’s Law

  44. REASONS FOR USING CITATIONS Disclaiming work or ideas of others. Disputing priority claims of others.

  45. PLAGIARISM Most of us don’t steal Wrong to take other people’s things without prior permission Intended and unintended plagiarism Common intellectual property - Neem, Solar Eclipse, M/F ratio - Commonly briefing Specific information/knowledge - Number - Kind of authority

  46. PLAGIARISM The word “plagiarism” used in relation to lawsuits in the publishing and recording industries Note : Music piracy grows 50% in ‘01

  47. ACADEMIC PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is the act of using another person’s ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source

  48. ACADEMIC PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is to give the impression that you have written of thought something that you have borrowed from someone else

  49. ACADEMIC PLAGIARISM Alexander Lindey defines it as “the false assumption of authorship: the wrongful act of taking the product of another person’s mind, and presenting it as one’s own”.

  50. ACADEMIC PLAGIARISM Plagiarism often carries severe penalties, ranging from failure in a course to expulsion from school