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A Presentation On SMART GRID

A Presentation On SMART GRID

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A Presentation On SMART GRID

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  1. A Presentation OnSMART GRID PREPARED BY SUBMITTED TO Priyanka Gupta Mr. JameelAhamad ShreyaBhatnagar Seminar In-Charge ShampaSrivastava EE Deptt. III EE

  2. WHAT IS A SMART GRID? • A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency.

  3. KEY CHARACTERISTICS • Self healing • Empower and incorporate the consumer • Tolerant of attack • Provides power quality needed by 21st century consumers • Accommodates a wide variety of generation options (like green energy) • Fully enables maturing electricity markets • Optimizes assets

  4. FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED • VARIABLE TARIFF-BASED LOAD • variable price profile given to the customer day ahead • different price profile for each day • automatic home management device coupled to an energy meter • ENERGY USAGE MONITORING AND FEEDBACK • display of energy consumption • comparisons to average consumption pattern • suggestions on how to further lower consumption

  5. REAL-TIME PORTFOLIO IMBALANCE REDUCTION • Balance Responsible Party (BRP) which plan or forecast the energy production and consumption • Imbalance cost for the BRPs on deviation from the energy plan • OFFERING RESERVE CAPACITY TO THE TSO • Energy generated by consumers sold back to the grid

  6. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONGESTION MANAGEMENT • loads shifted away from periods at which congestion occurs • usage data provided by the consumers proves to be very helpful • DISTRIBUTION GRID CELL ISLANDING IN CASE OF HIGHER- SYSTEM INSTABILITY • instable system operated separately • transition to island mode automatic

  7. BLACK START SUPPORT FROM SMART HOUSES • after black-out local grid is out of operation • start-up quickly in island mode • then reconnect with up-stream network • INTEGRATION OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES • forecasting a necessary tool due to volatility of production level of distributed generators • lowest forecasting error means most efficient operation


  9. SMART TRANSMISSION • Independent processors in each component at each sub-station and power plant • Sensors are connected to all other components in the system • Own state and of all other components are known and communicated

  10. On addition of new devices to the system device parameters are automatically updated The new component also has a built-in processor

  11. SELF HEALING TYPICAL BLACK-OUT SEQUENCE • a sudden outage of major lines occurs • further outage due to overload leaves the system imbalanced • frequency declines with large generation load imbalance • generation is taken off-line • island blacks out • long time taken to restore power

  12. emergency imposed on the system • frequency & load/generation imbalance is determined • and total outage is prevented


  14. A DISTRIBUTION VIEW Distribution system needs many changes to come in sync with requirements for the implementation of smart grid DESIRED OPTIMISATIONS • DEMAND OPTIMISATION • DELIVERY OPTIMIZATION • ASSET OPTIMIZATION • RENEWABLES OPTIMIZATION

  15. DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION • Refers to monitoring, control & communication functions • Important aspects of DA are in areas of protection and switching • Helps in quickly reconfigure interconnected network of feeders

  16. FEATURES OF DA DEVICES Can detect fault current and voltages Can help in self-healing of the grid Can communicate with one another

  17. DAO MODEL DISTRIBUTED ASSET OPTIMIZATION MODEL • Developed to provide an engineering basis for predicting hourly loading at any point between the sub-station & customer • Calculates power flowing through each transformer • Provides insights required to make better planning and operating decisions

  18. PROCESS OF DAO MODEL • DATA COLLECTION DATA INCLUDES • Customer information & billing data • Customer hourly consumption data • Distribution transformer characteristics • Feeder characteristics • Connectivity data for the distribution system

  19. DATA VALIDATION • Total annual customer energy validated with annual energy measured at the sub-station ESTABLISH WEATHER SENSITIVITY • Data obtained is weather-sensitive • Tuned with the weather parameters to obtain the actual data

  20. DATA CATEGORIZATION • Data obtained from users matched with Load-Shape library • Customers assigned best matching hourly or daily load-shape CALIBRATION • To compensate for unaccounted energy calibration process applied

  21. SMART HOME • Residential, Small Office & commercial building sector responsible for over 50% of total electricity consumption • Homes, offices and commercial buildings treated as an interconnected network instead of single units • Able to communicate, interact & negotiate with both customers & energy devices in local grid • Grid operated more efficiently as consumption is better predicted


  23. FEATURES OF SMART HOME • MICROGENERATION • Small homes can generate wind and solar power which if in surplus amount can be sold back to the distributor • SMART METERS • With their help user consumption can be measured, monitored and controlled • Smarter decisions made by consumers can be communicated back to grid • LOCAL STORAGE UNITS • Enables smart homes to store energy for future use

  24. ICT ARCHITECTURE • Introduces a holistic concept & technology for smart homes • Smart homes & buildings treated as proactive consumers also known as prosumers • Prosumers negotiate & collaborate as an intelligent network


  26. AMR • A communication technique to automatically collect the meter readings & other relevant data from meters • AMR has benefits beyond meter reading • It provides crucial data on an insight into other areas of operation

  27. DATA RETRIEVAL • For small commercial customers monthly consumption read is sufficient • For large commercial and industrial customers daily consumption read is required • Remote monitoring devices attached to meters store hourly consumption profile • Accurate bills provided to customers are more satisfying than estimated bills

  28. COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES • RF COMMUNICATION • Most widely accepted method of communication between meter and data collection • A wake-up signal is sent by data collection system to the RF devices • Devices send back the latest meter read & other information


  30. RADIO EQUIPPED HAND-HELD COMPUTER • Meter reader carrying a hand-held computer equipped with radio receiver walks-by homes, without actually entering the premises • Manual error reduced

  31. DRIVE-BY/MOBILE DATA COLLECTION • Radio transreciever installed in a utility vehicle • Root information downloaded from the utility billing system • Loaded into radio transreciever • Vehicle drives along the route and collects the readings through RF communication

  32. FIXED NETWORK DATA COLLECTION • Fixed network installed over saturated areas where advanced metering data, variable reads, unscheduled reads required • Used where daily reading or reading several times a day is required

  33. TELEPHONE BASED COMMUNICATION • INBOUND SYSTEMS • Modules call a central master data collection computer at pre-scheduled time • Provides hourly consumption data • OUTBOUND SYSTEMS • Master station calls the remote meter module to collect data

  34. WHAT IS A SMART METER? • Usage reporting device at each customer site is called a SMART METER • Computerised replacement of electrical meters • Contains a processor, non-volatile storage & communication facilities • Can track usage as a function of time-of-day, disconnect a customer via a software or send out alarms in case of problems • Interface directly with smart appliances to control them

  35. SECURITY ISSUES Necessary to support major applications & systems such as demand response, wide area measurement & control, electricity storage & transportation. TRUST • Necessary to know whether appropriate user is accessing accurate data created by right device at proper time • And the data hasn’t been modified

  36. COMMUNICATION & DEVICE SECURITY • Data transfer now taking place through digital medium like internet • Chances of data theft and modification very high • Hackers can immediately manipulate their energy costs or fabricate false readings PRIVACY • Electricity use pattern could lead to disclosure of when people are at home or work or travelling • This could support criminal targeting of homes

  37. SOLUTION • Most effective solution for securing smart grid based on PKI technologies PKI TECHNICAL ELEMENTS • PKI standards • Smart Grid PKI tools • Device Attestation

  38. PKI STANDARDS • Provide a mechanism for defining naming convention and certificate policy • They don’t specify how these standards should be used • They only provide a high-level framework for digital certificate usage and for implementing a PKI PKI TOOLS • They tell how to work on the PKI standards • Ease the management of PKI components in the Smart Grid application

  39. DEVICE ATTESTATION • Device attestation certificates are used only to assert the device manufacturer, model, serial no. and that the device has not been tampered with

  40. RELIABILITY • Renewable resources affect the reliability of grid due to their volatility • Demand response and electric storage provide economics of grid • Grid reliability can be improved by mitigating peak demand and load variability

  41. DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Reliability problem arises due to faults occurring in the system FUNCTIONS THAT RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS • Fault diagnosis and alarm processing function • Fault location function • Service restoration function

  42. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ALARM PROCESSING FUNCTION Automatically triggered after occurrence of a fault Also detect missing remote control signal Analysis of the fault presented to the operator FAULT LOCATION FUNCTION To find the location of faults Quickly determine the faulty section of feeder SERVICE RESTORATION FUNCTION Restores the power to the non-faulted section of the feeder