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Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?. Starter:. What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams? length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals? Mass = 3 grams. Starter:.

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• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

• length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals?

• Mass = 3 grams

• What is the density of a cube with a side length of 3 cm and a mass of 27 grams?

• length = 3 cm, lxwxh = Volume, which equals 27 cm³

• Mass = 27 grams

• Density = mass divided by volume = 1 g/cm³

### Minerals

Practice notes

• Minerals are the building blocks that make up rocks

• There are about 3000 known minerals.

• To be a mineral, all of the following questions must be answered “yes”:

• Is it nonliving material? A mineral is inorganic.

• Is it formed in nature? Only naturally made crystals are classified as minerals.

• Does it have a crystalline structure (repeating inner structure that determines shape)?

• Is it a solid? No gases or liquids allowed.

• Minerals are divided into two groups based on chemical makeup:

• Silicate minerals – contain silicon & oxygen, with additional elements; make up more than 90% of Earth’s crust.

• Nonsilicate minerals - no silicon or oxygen but C, O, Fe, S (carbonates – calcite, halides – fluorite, oxides – corundum, sulfates - gypsum

Quartz

Feldspar

Mica

All silicate minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen.

CALCITE

FLUORITE

CORUNDUM

GYPSUM

• 1. Color

• Impurities can change color (quartz vs. amethyst)

• Air and water can also change color of mineral (pyrite is golden, but exposure turns it black)

Quartz and amethyst are both silicon dioxide (SiO₂) but amethyst contains impurities which gives it its purple color.

• 2. Luster

• How the surface of a mineral reflects light.

• Controlled by how atoms are bonded

• Metallic, submetallic, nonmetallic (vitreous, silky, resinous, waxy, pearly, earthy)

• 3. Streak

• Color of mineral in powdered form

• Not always the same color of mineral sample

• More reliable than color of mineral

Hematite may vary in color but the streak will always be reddish brown.

• Cleavage and Fracture

• How mineral breaks, determined by atomic arrangement

• 4. Cleavage– tendency to break along flat surfaces (mica, halite) because bonding is weakest in those directions.

• 5. Fracture – tendency to break along curved or irregular surfaces (quartz – conchoidal) when bonding is equally strong in all directions.

• 6. Hardness

• Resistance to being scratched

• Mohs hardness scale:

Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond

Hardness Scratch Test

• < 2.5 = Mineral marks paper

• 2.5 = Fingernail

• 3 = Copper Penny

• 5 = Steel knife blade

• 6 = Plate of glass

• 6.5 = Steel file

• 7. Density

• How much matter there is in a given amount of space (D = m/v) (g/ cm³)

• 8. Special Properties

• Fluorescence (calcite, fluorite glow under UV)

• Chemical reactions (calcite)

• Optical – calcite causes double images

• Taste – halite

• Magnetism – magnetic, pyrrhotite attract iron

• Radioactivity – minerals containing radium or uranium can be detected with a Geiger counter.

### Elements and compounds

Element- A substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means. Found on the periodic table.

Compound- A substance made of two or more different atoms that are chemically bonded.

• Vocabulary foldable

• Exit: in 3-5 sentences How would you describe the mineral that represents your birthday month, using the vocabulary from today’s lesson?