SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONBy Rod Ellis Annis Luthfiana 2201410051 403-404
The Nature of Learner Language CHAPTER 2
Errors and Errors Analysis • Reasons for focusing on errors: • Raising the important question of ‘ Why do learners make errors?’ • Teacher know what errors learners make • Help learners to learn when they self-correct the errors they make
Identifying Errors • comparison of sentences produced by the learners with the "correct" sentences in the target language. For example, Jean says: .... went in the traffic .... went into the traffic • distinction: error <–> mistake Errors: they occur because the learner does not know what iscorrect Mistakes: the learners are unable to perform what they know
Describing Errors • classification into types – 2 ways: • classification into grammatical categories • try to identifiy general ways in which the learners utterances differ from target-language utterances - omission-> leaving out items which are requiredfor grammatical correctness - misinformation-> use of one grammatical form instead of another - misordering-> putting words in a wrong order
Explaining Errors • systematicerrors -> L2 learners create rules on their own – different to the rules of the target language • universalerrors -> L2 learners commit the same grammatical errors • Omission leave out the articles ‘a’, ‘the’, and –s off plural nouns. • Overgeneralization the use of ‘eated’ in place of ‘ate’. • Transfererrors learner attempts to make use their L1 knowledge.
Error Evaluation • Purpose: to help learners to learn an L2. • Globalerrors Violet the overall structure of a sentence and for this reason may make it difficult to process. • Localerrors Affect only a single constituent in the sentence and are less likely to createany processing problems.
Developmental Patterns • The early stages of L2 acquisition - silent period(especially children) making no attempt to say anything to begin with. - formulaic chunks the use of fix expressions like ‘How do you do?’, ‘I don’t know’ ‘Can I have a ____?’ - propositional simplification Learners find it difficult to speak in full sentence, so they frequently leave the words out.
The order of acquisition • Accuracy order Ranking the features according to how accurately each feature is used by the learners. There is a definite accuracy order, and that is: • the learner’s mother tongues, • their age, and • whether or not they have received formal instruction.
Sequence of acquisition • Seen as a process involving transitional constructions. • Restructuring Kind of reorganization,which is believed to be prevalent in language acquisition. • Following a U-shaped course of development. Initially the learners may display a high level of accuracy before again performing in accordaance with target-languages norms.
Variability in Learner Language • Research on variability has sought to show that, although allowance should perhaps be made for some free variation, variability in learner language is systematic. • Learners use their linguistic sources in predictable ways.
Learners vary in their use of the L2 according to: • Linguistic context In one context they use one form while in other contexts they use alternate forms. For example : the use of the verb ‘to be’ full ‘be’; e.g. : ‘is’ contracted ‘be’; e.g. : ‘s’ omit ‘be’ entirely
Situational context Learners are more likely to use the correct target-language forms in formal contexts and non-target forms in informal contexts. For example who the learner is addressing When native speakers of English are talking to friends, they tend to speak informally using colloquial expressions.
Psycholinguistic context • whether learners have the opportunity to plan their production. • Learners do build variable systems by trying to map particular forms on to particular functions.
Variability plays an integrative part in the overall pattern of development, with learners moving through a series of stages that reflect different kinds of variability. • Fossilization: many learners stop developing while still short of target-language competence. • Learners may succeed in reaching target-language norms in some types of language use but not in others.