Mainstreaming Climate Change in UN Country ProgrammingPart 1: PrinciplesPart 2: ExercisesUNDG Asia & Pacific CC Mainstreaming Working Group
Sustainable Development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - The Brundtland Commission 1987
Integrating climate change into development planning • CC is a development issue - not just an environmental concern • CC impacts on human development, economic growth, poverty alleviation and the achievement of MDGs • Long term: human lives and livelihoods are subject to threat from climate-related disruptions of ecological, economic and social systems • Short term: CC is eroding coping capacity of vulnerable people (severity & intensity of weather events floods, droughts, heat waves,) • CC is an opportunity for stimulating green growth
Emissions About 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from this region and this is expected to increase to over 50% by 2030
Risks & Vulnerabilities • Climate change exacerbates existing vulnerabilities • Food security/Agriculture • Water supply • Natural Disasters • Flooding • Sea Level Rise • Health • Ecosystem services • Capacities to cope
Cancun results THINGS REALIZED • Negotiations Are Back on Track – renewed trust • Green Climate Fund – it will be established • Formal recognition that emissions pledges need to rise • REDD+ : A framework on compensating countries not to cut down their forests THINGS NOT REALIZED • Commitments for deeper emissions cuts • Mechanisms for negotiating deeper emission cuts • Deciding on the legal status of any new global agreement
UNDAF Entry points • Guidance note on "CC integration" – April 2010 • Pool of trained trainers • Experience of the previous UNDAF cycle – where climate change was rarely mentioned • Along the UNDAF steps there are specific entry points, actions and tools • Integration needs to be discussed at all levels (UNCT members, Thematic Working Group, etc…)
Vertical or Horizontal • Integrating climate change in the context of the UNDAF process can take place at two levels: • As a cross-cutting theme, with a climate change perspective incorporated in all relevant UNDAF outcomes, as specific outputs. • As a climate-focused thematic pillar with specific activities and outputs contributing to a separate UNDAF outcome. • There is no right or wrong; much depends on national context.
Mandatory Steps UNDAF Guidelines 2. Country Analysis 1. Plan of Engagement 3. Strategic planning 4. M&E
Entry Point Tools Steps for UN Country Programming 1.1 Review existing country analytical work • Apply a climate lens (focus questions Annex A – C) • Mapping • Self Assessment Plan of Engagement 1.2 Engage stakeholders in mapping national planning process 1.3 Identify UNCT comparative advantages and gaps 2.1 Contribute to government led analysis • Apply a climate lens (focus questions Annex D) • Environmental Assessment - non project (GHG inventories, IEA, SEA etc.) • Other… 2.2 Support targeted climate related studies Support Country Analysis 2.3 Assess climate-related risks &opportunities as part of CCA 2.4 Participate in prioritization exercise for the UNDAF 3.1 Select 3-5 national priorities • Apply a climate lens (focus questions Annex E-I) • Screening (Annex G) • Mainstreaming (Annex I) 3.2 Ensure UNDAF outcomes provide collective support system for national development UNDAF Formulation and Programme and Project Preparation 3.3 Climate screen agency programmes and projects 3.4 Include climate change considerations in the Annual Work Plan of other annual planning instruments • Apply a climate lens (focus questions J-K) • Monitoring & Evaluation (Annex J) 4.1 Assess extent to which UNDAF results contribute to national priorities UNDAF Monitoring and Evaluation 4.2 Feed back intro country analysis & planning
Entry Point Tools Steps for UN Country Programming 1.1 Review existing country analytical work • Apply a climate lens (focus questions Annex A – C) • UN CC Mapping Plan of Engagement 1.2 Engage stakeholders in mapping national planning process 1.3 Identify UNCT comparative advantages and gaps 2.1 Contribute to government led analysis • As a part of screening country analytical work, use existing studies like • National Communication, National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), National Capacity Self Assessment (NSCA) • CC stakeholders - Ministry of Agriculture, Water, Forest, Energy, Environment, Health, Physical Planning, Civil Society, private sector etc… • Need to be engaged to help identify CC response and opportunities in context to human and economic development • UNCT: who is doing what on CC • Institutional mapping, matrix (example Thailand) 3.3 Climate screen agency programmes and projects 3.4 Environmental Assessments
2.1 Contribute to UN country analysis • Apply a climate lens (focus questions Annex D) • Use Environmental Assessments - (GHG inventories, IEA, agency reports etc.) Support Country Analysis 2.2 Support targeted climate related studies 2.3 Assess climate-related risks &opportunities as part of CCA 2.4 Participate in prioritization exercise for the UNDAF • Provide qualified staff and/or CVs of CC experts to be included in the analysis team • Compile list of available studies (SNCs, NAPAs, NSCAs, etc) and use existing vulnerability assessments and GHG inventories available in these documents • Where are emissions coming from (sectors/ sites)? • Which are the most vulnerable sectors/ sites and where are they? • Economic analysis of mitigation / adaptation options • Groups that will be most affected by CC and what are their concerns? • Assess and address sensitivity by conductingconsultations and meetings with wider stakeholders Ensure UN has CC expert at UNDAF SPR meeting
Thematic mainstreaming checklist (Annex C ) • Appraising UNDAF results CC (Annex F ) • Screening agency programmes (Annex G) • Mainstreaming CC in AWP (Annex I) 3.1 Select 3-5 national priorities 3.2 Ensure UNDAF outcomes provide collective support system for national development UNDAF Formulation and Programme and Project Preparation 3.3 Climate screen agency programmes and projects 3.4 Include climate change considerations in the Annual Work Plan of other annual planning instruments • Decide on Vertical and/or Horizontal integration of CC • Vertical: 1 outcome on CC such as “low carbon and climate resilient development” can have several outputs such as reducing carbon intensity in SMEs • Horizontal: Each of the 5 outcomes has several specific outputs on CC which enhance the resilience to CC, promote GHG reduction and promote co–benefits • Support to UNDAF Outcome working groups • Environmental Integration Meeting to review UNDAF outcomes/outputs • To monitor progress on CC activities include CC into AWPs (budget) at the project/programme level
Ensure that CC considerations are included in M & E processes/documents (focus questions J) • Ensure that M & E results feedback into planning (Annex K) 4.1 Assess extent to which UNDAF results contribute to national priorities UNDAF Monitoring and Evaluation 4.2 Feed back intro country analysis & planning • Monitoring and evaluation should detect: When changes in the actual climate influence the achievement of development programmes and projects or when new climate-related information suggests that they need to be modified. New capacity development needs for successfully mainstreaming climate change considerations in national and sectoral plans and policies. • M & E should provide an opportunity for learning and continuous improvement of the UNDAF while it is being implemented.
Key messages • Climate change presents significant threats to development and the achievement of the MDGs and will affect the poorest the most. • Integrate the concept of “low carbon/green growth and climate resilient development” opportunities for joint programmes • UNDG CC guidelines should be used in combination with other UNDG guidelines (Environment, Disaster Management, Gender). • Recommend that HRBA/RBM training for staff involved in UNDAF development at country level include a session on mainstreaming CC and the new UNDG Guidelines
Select a maximum of 2 exercises to run from the following menu • 1. Plan of Engagement • Ex 1: Stakeholder analysis • 2. Country Analysis • Ex 2: Causality Analysis • 3. Strategic Planning/UNDAF results matrix • Ex 3: Developing UNDAF outcomes, outputs • 4. Monitoring and Evaluation • Ex 4: Identifying indicators for monitoring and evaluation
Exercise 1: Stakeholder analysis for mainstreaming climate change into the UNDAF process • Objectives: By the end of the exercise participants will have a better understanding of how the UNCT can engage the right stakeholders to ensure that integration of climate change into the UNDAF process is effective. • Facilitator notes: (1) divide into groups; (2) for the UNDAF country being examined (or ask each group to pick a country) ; (3) ask groups to: a) identify national and international stakeholders that UNCT could realistically be involved; b) at what stage of the UNDAF (screen slide 9) should they be involved & what could be their role (Encourage groups to think beyond environmental agencies and NGOs); (4) allow 20-30 mins for discussion; (5) choose one group to present to plenary then ask others to comment. • Tools and materials: Flip chart per group, pens, slide 9.
Exercise 2: Causality analysis • Objectives: By the end of this exercise participants will have gained an understanding of the process of causality analysis associated with climate risks to development, as a means of better reviewing and contributing to the UN Country Analysis document • Facilitator notes: (1) divide participants into groups; (2) present a generic problem tree analysis (see next slide); (3) hand out a set of cards to each group which includes ‘a problem’, ‘immediate causes’, ‘underlying causes’ and ‘root causes’; (4) task each group with re-arranging the cards in the correct hierarchy onto a flip-chart; (5) facilitators moves from one group to the other and discusses the results. • Tools and materials: flip charts (1 per group), one set of cards per group (facilitators provide their own example in advance and write it out on cards), tape, generic problem tree diagram
Exercise 3: Developing UNDAF climate change outcome and output statements • Objectives: By the end of this exercise participants will be more aware of how to write a climate change specific UNDAF outcome. • Facilitator notes: (1) present slides on definition of UNDAF outcomes and related pitfalls; (2) divide into groups and share Cambodia CCA section on climate change (one per pax); (3) allow 5 mins for reading then 15 mins to draft a climate specific outcome statement; (4) ask two groups to present in plenary 3-5 mins; (5) facilitator types up the outcome statements on the projector. • Tools and materials: powerpoint projector; printed out section on climate change from Cambodia CCA 2009 (see notes below); ppt slides
Exercise 3: Developing UNDAF climate change outcome and output statements Impact Changes in the lives of people Outcome Institutional Change: values, ethic, rules, laws – associated with institutional performance. Behavioural change: knowledge, skills, practices (individual level) Output Operational Change: provision of goods and services
Exercise 3: What is an UNDAF Outcome The HIGH LEVEL RESULTS of UN system cooperation • Represent changes in institutional performance or behaviors • A strategic contribution to the achievement of National goals/ MDGs • Collective priorities • Produced by the combined effects of agency specific and joint outputs • Reflect a choice about strategy or policy - debatable & controversial.
Wordy To promote equitable climate change adaptation and mitigation action in accordance with international norms by strengthening national capacities at all levels and empowering citizens and increasing their participation in decision-making processes Too ambitious Strengthened climate change adaption capacities and increased awareness on climate change impactsat all levels of government Wishy-washy, not a result Support to capacity building for climate change adaption So general, they could mean anything To promote climate change action and increase capacity at municipal level Exercise 3: Pitfalls in developing outcomes and outputs
Exercise 4: Assessing quality of indicators for monitoring and evaluation • Objectives: By the end of this exercise participants will have a better understanding of what constitutes a good UNDAF ‘outcome’ indicator on building resilience to climate change. • Facilitator notes: (1) present the attached slide which provides real examples taken from an UNDAF results matrix (hide the italicised portion of the slide); (2) break participants down in groups of no more than 5 or 6; (3) task the groups with assessing the quality of the three alternative indicators provided (low, medium, high); (4) ask each group to briefly present back their findings with justification; (5) discussion. • Tools and materials: Example UNDAF indicators for assessment (see attached); ‘suggested’ results of quality assessment for facilitator only; small group discussion; plenary discussion. • Time: 25 mins
Exercise 4: assessing quality of indicators for monitoring and evaluation