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Knowledge Maps An Intellectual Infrastructure for KM . Tom Reamy Knowledge Architect Intranet Consultant. Knowledge Maps. What is a knowledge map? The Foundation: Knowledge Architecture Strategic Role of a Knowledge Map Creating, Applying, Growing a Knowledge Map.

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knowledge maps an intellectual infrastructure for km

Knowledge Maps An Intellectual Infrastructure for KM

Tom Reamy

Knowledge Architect

Intranet Consultant

knowledge maps
Knowledge Maps
  • What is a knowledge map?
  • The Foundation: Knowledge Architecture
  • Strategic Role of a Knowledge Map
  • Creating, Applying, Growing a Knowledge Map
what is a knowledge map
What is a Knowledge Map?
  • Multiple & Dynamic Taxonomies
      • Content Repositories
      • People
      • Activities
  • Living, Breathing, Evolving
      • The human operators
  • Intellectual infrastructure
what is a knowledge map4
What is a Knowledge Map?
  • Content Repositories:
    • Intranet Content & External Content
    • Structured and unstructured
    • Best Practices Database, Library of Stories
  • Key Features:
    • Multiplicity of authors, size and types of documents
    • Multiplicity of formats, uses.
    • Design for dynamic fluxuating content
what is a knowledge map5
What is a Knowledge Map?
  • Personal Contexts
    • Individuals – explicit and implicit personalization
    • Formal Communities
    • Informal Communities
    • Hidden and temporary Communities
  • Key Features:
    • Tacit Knowledge, Expertise
what is a knowledge map6
What is a Knowledge Map?
  • Taxonomies of Tasks
    • Information + rules about types of related content
    • Basic task: Find Information
  • Key Features:
    • Least Developed Taxonomy
    • Most Dynamic & Most Local Variation
what is a knowledge map7
What is a Knowledge Map?
  • The Human operators
    • K Managers
    • K Analysts
    • K Engineers
what is a knowledge map the human operators
What is a Knowledge Map?The Human Operators
  • Knowledge Managers
    • Project Management+
    • Capture the knowledge generated in a project
    • Develop knowledge sharing practices
    • Capture Best Practices
    • Provide training and leadership on projects
what is a knowledge map the human operators9
What is a Knowledge Map?The Human Operators
  • Knowledge Analysts
    • Research, catalog, categorize, search
    • Corporate Librarians+
    • Work with SME’s to create a semantic network of the enterprise
    • Work with KM support technology, especially search and categorization
what is a knowledge map the human operators10
What is a Knowledge Map?The Human Operators
  • Knowledge Engineers
    • Collect, analyze, organize tacit knowledge
    • Establish connections between individuals to facilitate knowledge transfer
    • Facilitate explicit knowledge transfer (K Base)
    • Provide input and feedback to Knowledge analysts
    • Train people to incorporate KM
what is a knowledge map format
What is a Knowledge Map?Format
  • Format of Knowledge Map
    • It doesn’t matter – Any old thing will do.
    • Database, intranet, shared files
    • Excel Spreadsheets & macros
    • Need Federated search and ability to categorize all content
    • Content Management
knowledge architecture foundation for a knowledge map
Knowledge Architecture:Foundation for a Knowledge Map
  • Knowledge Architecture is the foundation for a Knowledge map
  • Information Architecture is the foundation for Knowledge Architecture
  • Knowledge is Information + Contexts
    • Intellectual, Personal, Practical Contexts
    • Knowledge Architecture: Integration of Multiple Contexts
information architecture
Information Architecture
  • Organization
  • Navigation
  • Labeling
  • Search

Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

- Lou Rosenfield and Peter Morville

information architecture14
Information Architecture
  • Organization - Taxonomy
    • “Believe it or not, we’re all becoming librarians.”
    • Support categorization, casual browsing, and directed searching
    • Typical Schemas: Alphabetical, chronological, location, hierarchical, hypertext
    • Controlled Vocabularies
information architecture15
Information Architecture
  • Navigation - Browse
    • Good Design provides context to enable users to make smart choices
    • Present the structure of the information hierarchy
    • Table of contents, Index, site map
information architecture16
Information Architecture
  • Labeling systems
    • Supports navigation
    • Textual, iconic, index terms, link labels, Headings
    • Controlled Vocabularies & Thesauri
information architecture17
Information Architecture
  • Search
    • Not a substitute for poorly designed browsing system.
    • Support variety of search strategies - known item, exploration
    • Search and Browse
    • Advanced Search?
knowledge architecture
Knowledge Architecture
  • Knowledge is information + contexts
  • Context is what gives meaning and depth to information
  • Let me tell you a story.
knowledge architecture19
Knowledge Architecture
  • Intellectual, Personal, Practical Contexts
  • Integration of Contexts
  • Knowledge network mapped to network of actors mapped to a network of tasks.
intellectual context
Intellectual Context
  • Dynamic
      • Model a historical dimension
      • KA for Stories - temporal and experiential
  • Multi-dimensional
      • Information + precedent
      • Policy - topical + why its important
  • Rich Structure
      • Controlled Vocabularies, not just keywords
      • Hierarchical semantic net
personal context
Personal Context
  • Audience based categorization
  • Smart and Dynamic Personalization
    • Adapt to user’s activities
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • Connecting People and People
    • People and Agents
social contexts
Social Contexts
  • Personal Newspaper - useless
      • “To say it simply, newspapers should get out of the information business and into the knowledge business….information that is embedded in some context, …has a purpose, …leads one to seek.
      • Buidling a Bridge to the Eighteenth Century
  • Community Newspapers - Yes!
  • Variety of Activity Types
      • Communication and Collaboration
    • Variety of Interest Types
      • Stock Market, Java Programming, Scuba
    • Variety of Channels
      • Project / document collaboration
      • Discussion Groups, Real Time Video Conf.
      • Chat, Water Cooler Mtg’s, Email
social context
Social Context
  • KA must support all those social activities
  • Model and support the communities
  • Model, capture, and retrieve the tacit and explicit knowledge expressed inside.
  • Model and match personal profiles
practical contexts
Practical Contexts
  • Find Information on Product X
      • What information is important depends on why you want the information.
  • Contact a person who knows Y
      • Know when to contact them
  • Understand my educational options
      • Personal and historical filter of information
integration of contexts
Integration of Contexts
  • Consistent Categorization
    • Collaboration, Expertise Locators, Search
  • Rules for mapping categories
    • Thesaurus
  • Rules for applying categories
    • Relative weighting of filters
strategic role of knowledge map history of km
Strategic Role of Knowledge MapHistory of KM
  • Phase I – KM as technology - CIO
    • “We are a technology company in the X services industry.”
  • Phase II – “It’s the culture, Stupid!” -CKO.
  • Phase III – “It’s the Knowledge, Stupid!” – CKO + CKA
strategic role of knowledge map
Strategic Role of Knowledge Map
  • 3 Essential Infrastructures:
  • Technology: $Millions and 1,000’s of people
  • Organizational: Recognized Value, fundamental to enterprise
  • Intellectual: a couple of librarians, no budget, and first to be laid off.
strategic role of knowledge map29
Strategic Role of Knowledge Map
  • Establish legitimacy, value of the third infrastructure
  • Create the proper context for projects
      • Expertise locators, search, etc.
      • Overcome the Tyranny of the technologists
  • Align KM approach with business goals
    • Codification and Personalization
creating a knowledge map
Creating a Knowledge Map
  • Key Features
    • Its an evergreen project
    • Based on multiple Taxonomies
    • Active field work with SME’s
    • Soft Methods (Day in the Life)
    • Hard Methods (Auto-categorization)
    • Self-Referential Project
creating a knowledge map31
Creating a Knowledge Map
  • Content Repositories
      • Meta Data – Dublin Core +
      • Extensions: XML, RDF
      • Controlled Vocabularies
  • Browse Taxonomy
      • Early Application (Pay the Rent)
      • Build it to destroy itself
      • Categorization - Cyborg
creating a knowledge map32
Creating a Knowledge Map
  • Categorization of People, Communities
    • Knowledge Engineers
      • Knowledge Interviews
        • Personal Contexts: Expertise, interests
        • Communities: formal and informal
        • Activities
    • Map to Content Repositories
    • Expertise Locators
creating a knowledge map33
Creating a Knowledge Map
  • Historical Dimension
    • Feedback into all aspects of the map
    • Track how people are using the applications built on the map
      • Search, Browse, Content Creation
    • Collaborative Filtering
      • Ranking the importance of elements of the system
applying a knowledge map
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Infrastructure Application
    • Consistent categorization across all KM initiatives.
  • Integration of birth/death cycle
      • Content Creation: Innovation
      • Collaboration
      • Knowledge Retrieval
      • Distributed Content Management
        • Taxonomic Publishing, not Web site
applying a knowledge map35
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Smart Technical Support
  • E-Learning and Best Practices
  • Expertise Locators
  • Support formal and informal communities
  • Knowledge Retrieval
applying a knowledge map36
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Information Retrieval: ProductName
      • List of Documents, ranked by frequency of keyword
      • You will only look at the first three.
      • You will probably not find what you want.
      • Or it will take you a long time to find it.
applying a knowledge map37
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Knowledge Retrieval: ProductName
      • List of Documents – about product
      • Categorized list:
        • Features of Product
        • Comparisons of Products
        • Legal / Policy documents
        • Activities associated with product
      • List of Experts and types of questions
      • Background Resources
        • Glossaries
        • Communities
applying a knowledge map38
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Knowledge Retrieval: ProductName
    • Filters:
      • Admin in retail tech support
      • Belong to a discussion group - resource
      • The last time you looked up ProductName, you selected documents x, y, z
      • You don’t want legal information emphasized
      • You are not an expert on product – general abastracts
applying a knowledge map39
Applying a Knowledge Map
  • Knowledge Retrieval: ProductName
    • Filters:
      • You have read documents a-c
      • You are having money problems
      • You are open to a bribe
      • You’re not doing anything Saturday night
      • You like red wine
      • It knows just the place!