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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction (Redox). Reactions in which electrons are transferred between substances. Use of Oxidation numbers in determining redox reactions is basically a bookkeeping method for keeping track of electrons.

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Presentation Transcript
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Oxidation-Reduction

(Redox)

Reactions in which electrons are transferred between substances

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Use of Oxidation numbers in determining redox reactions is basically a bookkeeping method for keeping track of electrons

You must be able to identify an oxidation-reduction reaction. But first, we must learn the rules for assigning oxidation #’s to different species.

rules for oxidation numbers
Rules for oxidation numbers
  • Atoms in elemental form are 0.
  • Cation (positive metal ion); oxidation numbers: Group 1 (+1), Group 2 (+2), Group 13 (+3).
  • Nonmetals; usually negative numbers.

a.) oxygen = -2 unless a peroxide O2-2 then O= -1

b.) Hydrogen +1 with nonmetals, -1 with metals

c.) Oxidation numbers: (Group 17) (-1), Group 16 (-2), Group 15 (-3) unless bonded to oxygen then (+) oxidation as in a polyatomic ion (Ex: ClO3-; Cl = +5)

4) Sum of oxidation numbers must = 0 for neutral compound or equal to charge of polyatomic ion.

5) Most electronegative (furthest to right and up) element gets a negative charge.

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Atoms in elemental form are 0.
  • Examples
  • Ag
  • Pb
  • Cl2
  • O2
  • Oxidation # = 0 for 7 diatomic elements and for all
  • other elements when by themselves.
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Binary Ionic Compounds-
  • charge of the ion based on Group number.
  • Examples
  • AgCl Ag = +1 Cl = -1
  • PbI2 Pb = +2 I = -1
  • Fe2O3 Fe = +3 O = -2
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3) Nonmetals; usually negative numbers.

a.) oxygen = -2 unless a peroxide = -1

b.) Hydrogen +1 with nonmetals, -1 with metals

c.) Oxidation numbers: (Group 17) (-1), Group 16 (-2), Group 15 (-3) unless bonded to oxygen then (+) oxidation as in a polyatomic ion (Ex: ClO3-; Cl = +5)

Examples

PbO oxygen = -2 Na2O2 oxygen = -1

H2S hydrogen = +1 NaH hydrogen = -1

KI iodine = -1 KIO2 iodine = + 3

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Determine Oxidation # of element red element in each of the following:

MnO2

+4

KMnO4

+7

BrO2-

+3

BrO3-

+5

Br2

0

HClO4

+7

H2SO4

+6

PO33-

+3

CaH2

-1

SO42-

+6

Na2S

-2

Mg(NO3)2

+5

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