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The Spread of Hellenistic Culture. Chapter 5 Section 5 Page 132. First, A Review…. Philip and Alexander were kings of which country? Macedonia Why did Philip want to take Persia? It had wealthy provinces and to avenge the attacks on Greece years before

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the spread of hellenistic culture

The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

Chapter 5 Section 5

Page 132

first a review
First, A Review…
  • Philip and Alexander were kings of which country?
  • Macedonia
  • Why did Philip want to take Persia?
  • It had wealthy provinces and to avenge the attacks on Greece years before
  • What did Alexander do with Darius’s offer of the Western half of the Persian empire?
  • Rejected it
  • How far had Alexander’s army marched in 11 years?
  • 11,000 miles
  • Where was Alexander’s tomb located for centuries?
  • Alexandria
hellenistic culture in alexandria
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
  • After Alexander the Great’s death, a new culture emerges-Greek Hellenic
  • Blended Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian influences together
  • Language was Koine (koy-nay) in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria
alexandria egypt
Alexandria, Egypt
  • Alexandria the center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
  • Location- great place, located on edge of Nile delta
  • Population over 500,000
trade and cultural diversity
Trade and Cultural Diversity
  • Very beautiful, majestic palaces that look over harbor
  • Ships from all around Mediterranean docked in its spacious harbor
  • Thriving commerce enabled Alexandria to grow and prosper
  • People of all cultures and trade mingled in crowded marketplaces
alexandria s greatest attractions
Alexandria’s Greatest Attractions
  • A tomb containing Alexander’s glass coffin was stored in Alexandria
  • An enormous stone lighthouse called the Pharos soared over the harbor
  • The lighthouse contained a bronze mirror that reflected the light from a blazing fire
  • Famous museum and library dedicated to the Muses, the Greek goddesses of art and sciences
science and technology
Science and Technology
  • Scholars in Alexandria provided most of the scientific knowledge available
  • Museum contained small observatory where astronomers could study the planets and stars
  • Astronomer Aristarchus concluded that the sun was 300 times larger than the earth and that other planets revolve around the sun
incorrect information
Incorrect Information
  • Unfortunately, other astronomers refused to support Artistarchus’ theories
  • By 2nd century A.D. , another astronomer Ptolemy incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the solar system, and is believed to be true for next 1400 years
earth s size
Earth’s Size
  • A scholar named Eratosthenes closely calculated the earth’s true size using geometry
  • He concluded the earth’s circumference at 24,662 miles
  • Today we compute the earth’s circumference to be 24,860 miles
  • His estimate was within 1% of our modern calculations
mathematics and physics
Mathematics and Physics
  • Euclid, a mathematician opened a school of geometry in Alexandria and wrote the book, Elements
  • Book was used in universities into the 1900’s
  • Archimedes, gifted in geometry and physics, studied at Alexandria
  • Accurately estimated the value of pi
  • Shared knowledge that helped build different machines
philosophy and art
Philosophy and Art
  • Teachings of Plato and Aristotle very influential in Hellenistic philosophy
  • 2 major philosophies develop during this period- Stoicism and Epicureanism
  • Greek philosopher Zeno founded stoicism
  • Philosophy based on ethics
  • Proposed people should live life in harmony with natural law
  • Preached that things like human desires, power and wealth were dangerous distractions that should be controlled
  • Encourage those to focus on things they could control
  • Greek philosopher Epicurus founded Epicureanism
  • Taught the universe was composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans
  • Believed the main goal of humans was achieve harmony of body and mind
  • Today, the word epicurean means one devoted to pursuing human pleasures
realism in sculpture
Realism in Sculpture
  • Like science, sculpture flourished during Hellenistic period, sculptures and statues were displayed
  • Largest known statue was the Colossus of Rhodes- bronze statue stood more than 100 feet high
  • Legend said it straddled the harbor, but experts don’t think that is true
  • Was destroyed by an earthquake, and bronze was sold for scrap
hellenistic sculptors
Hellenistic Sculptors
  • Hellenistic sculptors moved away from the harmonic balance and began to create more realistic works
  • Instead of a serene face and perfect body, they began to create more natural works
  • Explored new subjects like ordinary people, and a wrinkled old peasant woman
  • By 150 B.C., Hellenistic world was on a decline
  • A new city Rome was growing and gaining strength
  • Through Rome, Greek-style drama, architecture, sculpture, religion and philosophy were preserved and became the core of Western Civilization
just for fun
Just for Fun…
  • Wife Swap- Athens/ Sparta