language mind ling 240 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Language & Mind LING 240 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Language & Mind LING 240

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

Language & Mind LING 240 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 80 Views
  • Uploaded on

Language & Mind LING 240. Classes #5-6 Producing Speech Sounds. Development of Speech Sounds. What newborn babies know Important changes around 6-10 months old Learning sounds & learning words (16-20 months) Phonological ‘awareness’ and literacy (~5 years+). Sound Production.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Language & Mind LING 240' - elke


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
language mind ling 240

Language & MindLING 240

Classes #5-6

Producing Speech Sounds

development of speech sounds
Development of Speech Sounds
  • What newborn babies know
  • Important changes around 6-10 months old
  • Learning sounds & learning words (16-20 months)
  • Phonological ‘awareness’ and literacy (~5 years+)
slide4

How you look to a phonetician

Palate

Velum

Tongue

Glottis

(vocal folds)

Lips, teeth etc.

slide5

How you look to a phonetician

Nasal

Cavity

Oral

Cavity

slide6

˜

÷

we want to understand
We want to understand...
  • What mechanisms are used to produce speech sounds - what must children master?
  • What are some differences between the sounds of English and other languages?
a puzzle
A Puzzle...
  • Korean speakers use the sounds [r] and [l]e.g. Korea Seoul
  • Korean babies hear the difference between [ra] and [la] … they don’t know Korean yet
  • Korean adults know Korean … but they have difficulty hearing the [ra] vs. [la] contrast
another puzzle
Another Puzzle…
  • Learning to spell…‘sky’ --> SGIEunlikely‘cup’ --> GUP
forget spelling

Forget Spelling!

Sounds ≠ Spelling

one sound many characters
One Sound - Many Characters

he e seas ea

believe ie amoeba oe

Caesar ae key ey

see ee machine i

people eo seize ei

IPA: [i]

one sound many characters1
One Sound - Many Characters

too oo threw ew

to o lieu ieu

clue ue shoe oe

through ough

IPA: [u]

one character many sounds
One Character - Many Sounds

dame e

dad æ

father a

call ø

village \, ˆ

many ´

one sound multiple letters
One Sound - Multiple Letters

shoot ß

either ∂

character k

deal i

Thomas t

physics f

roughf

one letter 0 1 2 sounds
One Letter - 0, 1, 2 Sounds

mnemonic

psychology

resign

ghost

island

whole

debt cute [kjut]

differences across languages
Differences across Languages
  • English: judge, juvenile, Jesus
  • Spanish: jugar, Jesus
  • German: Jugend, jubeln, Jesus
  • French: Jean, j’accuse, jambon
major division consonants vs vowels
Major division: consonants vs vowels
  • Consonantal sounds: narrow or complete closure somewhere in the vocal tract.
  • Vowels: very little obstruction in the vocal tract. Can form the basis of syllables (also possible for some consonants).
describing speech sounds
Describing Speech Sounds
  • Is the air-flow blocked?vowel vs. consonant
  • What are the vocal folds doing?voiced vs. voiceless
  • Where/how is the air flowing?nasal/oral, stop, fricative, liquid etc.
  • Where is the air-flow blocked?labial, alveolar, palatal, velar etc.
voiced voiceless consonants
Voiced & voiceless consonants
  • Consonants either voiced or voiceless.
  • English pairs:
    • b/p
    • v/f
    • d/t
    • z/s
    • ∂/†
slide23

Block itat the velum

Where does the air go?

slide24

˜

Block itat the velum

Where does the air go?

slide32

gk

Where does the airgo this time?

so so far we have
So so far we have:

Nasal stops:

[m] [n] [˜]

Non-nasal (oral) stops:

[b] [p] [d] [t] [g] [k]

slide37

Where can you stop the airstream?

interdental

[∂] [†]

slide38

Where can you stop the airstream?

alveolar

[d] [t] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r]

slide39

Where can you stop the airstream?

palatal

[z°] [s°] [j°] [c°]

features
Features
  • Ways of describing soundse.g., [t] = voiceless, alveolar, stop
  • Stronger claim: features are the smallest building blocks of language, used to store sounds in the mind
  • Atoms of Speech

Roman Jakobson, 1896-1982

manner
Manner
  • Stops[p] [k] [t] [d] [k] [g]...
  • Fricatives[f] [v] [†] [∂] [s] [z]
  • Approximants/Glides[w] [j]
  • Liquids[r] [l]
voiced voiceless consonants1
Voiced & voiceless consonants
  • Consonants either voiced or voiceless.
  • English pairs (voiced-left; voiceless-right):
    • b/p
    • v/f
    • d/t
    • z/s
    • ∂/†
    • etc.
fricatives affricates
Fricatives & Affricates
  • Palatal sounds [z°] [s°] [j°] [c°]
  • Palatal Fricatives - [z°] [s°][note: according to IPA chart these are strictly ‘post-alveolar’]
  • Affricates - combination of stop + fricative - [j°] [c°], as in judge, church
describing consonants
Describing Consonants
  • What are the vocal folds doing?voiced vs. voiceless
  • Where/how is the air flowing?nasal/oral, stop, fricative, liquid etc.
  • Where is the air-flow blocked?labial, alveolar, palatal, velar etc.
features1
Features
  • Prediction: by combining a small number of atomic features, it should be possible to create a larger number of speech sounds
  • Goal: a set of universal features should make it possible to describe the speech sounds of all of the languages of the world
  • Different languages choose different feature combinations
slide50

?

?

“Fuji”

“Cuba”

?

slide52

“Bach”

“agua”

?

so you can
So. You can....
  • Raise or lower your tongue
  • Advance or retract your tongue
  • Round or spread your lips
  • Tense or not tense your mouth
so what vowels do you have
So what vowels do you have?

i

“sheep, sleep”

ˆ

“ship, slip”

so what vowels do you have1
So what vowels do you have?

i

ˆ

“laid, spade, trade”

e

´

“led, sped, tread”

so what vowels do you have2
So what vowels do you have?

i

ˆ

e

´

æ

“bat, lad”

so what vowels do you have3
So what vowels do you have?

i

u

“Luke, who’d, suit”

¨

ˆ

“look, hood, soot”

e

´

æ

so what vowels do you have4
So what vowels do you have?

i

u

¨

ˆ

“coat, wrote, hoed”

e

o

´

ø

“caught, wrought, hawed”

æ

so what vowels do you have5
So what vowels do you have?

i

u

¨

ˆ

e

o

´

ø

“bah, father, cot, Don”

æ

a

so what vowels do you have6
So what vowels do you have?

i

u

¨

ˆ

e

o

´

ø

“but, putt, rut”

æ

a

so what vowels do you have7
So what vowels do you have?

i

u

¨

ˆ

“metallic, Texas”

e

\

o

´

ø

æ

a

so here they are
So here they are

i

u

¨

ˆ

e

\

o

´

ø

æ

a

some dialectal differences
Some dialectal differences
  • caught/cot [Mid back lax vowel and mid back tense vowel]: many American speakers do not have both of these.
  • pot/father: some British and (fewer) American dialects have different vowels in these words (“pot” has a low back rounded vowel [Å]).
diphthongs1
Diphthongs:

“side, my, kind”

aj

diphthongs3
Diphthongs:

“loud, brow, hour”

aw

diphthongs5
Diphthongs:

“boy, annoy, toil”

øj

speech production summary
Speech Production - Summary
  • Airflow set in vibration by vocal foldsAirflow modified by vocal tract
  • Vowels: shaping of oral cavity
  • Consonants: narrowing or blocking of oral/nasal cavity
  • Different languages choose different selections of articulatory gestures
speech perception
Speech Perception
  • Speech production processes must be undone by the ear
  • Motions of articulators must be reconstructed from patterns of air vibration
  • Requires extremely precise hearing, possibly a system specialized for hearing speech
  • Substantially developed at birth