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Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education. Daniel J. Reschly dan.reschly@vanderbilt.edu 615-708-7910 Delaware Department of Education May 7, 2007. What To Do With Egbert?? . 1st Grade, falling behind in reading Slow progress compared to peers

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slide1

Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education

Daniel J. Reschly

dan.reschly@vanderbilt.edu

615-708-7910

Delaware Department of Education

May 7, 2007

Reschly RTI

slide2

What To Do With Egbert??

  • 1st Grade, falling behind in reading
  • Slow progress compared to peers
  • Likely to miss benchmarks related to passing 3rd Grade reading test
  • Distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant
  • Sound Familiar
  • WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation
  • Consider NCLB and IDEIA

Reschly RTI

slide3

What To Do With Egbert??

  • 9th Grade, failing 3 of 5 classes at first 9 weeks
  • Attendance is declining
  • Homework non completion
  • Poor performance on weekly or unit tests
  • Defiant, distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant
  • Sound Familiar
  • WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation
  • Consider NCLB and IDEIA

Reschly RTI

slide4

Egbert in the Traditional System

  • Refer Egbert
    • Preferral “intervention” (check a box)
    • Comprehensive Evaluation-Battery of Tests, “common battery”?
    • Assessment largely outside of the natural context
    • Dubious generalizations from test behavior to classroom
    • Eligibility assessment unrelated to intervention
    • Team decision-making
    • SLD diagnoses often inaccurate

Reschly RTI

slide5

PROBLEM SOLVING CHART

Does the *%$# thing

work?

Yes

No

Don’t mess with it!

Did you mess with it?

You Idiot!

Yes

No

No

Hide it!

Yes

Will you catch hell?

Does anyone

else know?

No

Yes

You poor slob!

Ignore it

Can you blame somebody else?

No

Yes

NO PROBLEM

slide6

What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)?

  • Scientifically-based instruction/interventions matched to student needs
  • Formative evaluation including frequent progress monitoring in relation to benchmarks, with decision rules applied
  • Decisions driven by student RTI, including gen’l ed instruction/intervention, remedial services/individual interventions, sp ed eligibility, placement, annual review and exit
  • Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes

Reschly RTI

slide7

RTI Model Differences

  • Restricted vs Comprehensive System Wide
  • LD Identification
    • Do Tiers I and II, then traditional evaluation
    • Or Use RTI in eligibility determination and in the design, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs
  • Academic only or Academic and Behavior
  • False dichotomies: Standard Protocol vs Problem Solving vs Recognition of Both
    • Choices determined by nature of problem
    • Use of both in many situations

Reschly RTI

slide8

RESPONSE TO Intervention

POLICY CONSIDERATIONS

AND IMPLEMENTATION

Order at:

www.nasdse.org

Cost: $15 with discounts

for large orders

Reschly RTI

slide9

Purpose of the RTI Process

  • Improve results in academic, behavioral, and emotional regulation domains, through
    • High quality interventions
    • Formative evaluation
  • Student results drive decisions about needs and intensity of interventions
  • Improve, eliminate disproportionate representation
  • Identification of disabilities through procedures that are valid and connected to effective special ed interventions
  • Improve special education results and increase exit from sp ed
  • Prevention and early identification-intervention

Reschly RTI

why rti
Why RTI?
  • Dissatisfaction with ach. results
  • Expensive programs with undocumented benefits, General Ed. Title I and Sp Ed
  • Poor overall outcomes re: benchmark tests, graduate rates, early adult outcomes
  • Overrepresentation in sp ed
  • Disjointed programs across general, remedial and special ed.-compromised outcomes and wasted resources

Reschly RTI

slide11

13

16

18

41

42

29

30

30

35

31

58

54

52

27

24

Reschly RTI

slide12

Special Education Placement Effects: High Incidence Disabilities

Treatment/InterventionaEffect Size

EMR/Special Classes (IQ 60-75) -.14

Special Classes (IQ 75-90) -.34

Resource for SLD and E/BD +.29

Traditional Placement Practices Have Weak Relationships to Outcomes

Special Education as a Solution?

Note: Effect size is expressed in SD units, analogous to a z-score

Reschly RTI

old assumptions re high incidence disabilities sld mmr e bd
Old Assumptions re: High Incidence Disabilities (SLD, MMR, E/BD)
  • Disabilities Inherent in Individual?-BUT, Context and prevention are crucial
  • Identify and Treat Underlying Causes-BUT, Failure of process training
  • Prescribe Methods that Capitalize on Strengths and Avoid Weaknesses-BUT, Failure of Aptitude by Treatment Interaction in Research and Practice

Reschly RTI

old assumptions cont
Old Assumptions, cont.

Unique Treatment Methods and Teacher Training by Disability But, Same methods work for virtually all High Incidence I SWD, LD, ED, EMR

IQ Essential to Accurate Classification-BUT Same kids found with problem solving processes and measures

Identifying Disability and Sp Ed Placement Solves Problem

Dubious Effects of Special Education

Reschly RTI

slide15

Meaningfulness of Special Education High Incidence Categories (www.ideadata.org) Table 1-13, retrieved 1-16-07

CategoryPrevalence RangeFactor ofNotes

  • MR: 0.4% (NJ) to 3.0% (WV) 7Xs (9 at 0.4)
  • ED: 0.2% (AR) to 2.4% (DC) 12Xs (VT=2.0)
  • LD: 2.2% (KY) to 7.7% (OK) 3Xs
  • Sp/L: 0.5% (HI) to 4.3% (WV) 8Xs
  • OHI: 0.5% (CA) to 2.4% (RI) 5Xs
  • All: 8.9% (CO) to 15.9% (RI) 1.8Xs

Notes: Child disability count as a percentage of the 6-17 population.

Reschly RTI

slide17

Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements

  • RESEARCH: Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to
  • POLICY: Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to
  • FEDERAL LAW: Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to
  • STATE LAW: Changes in state rules leading to
  • SCALING UP: Scaling up efforts in states

Reschly RTI

slide18

What Works? See Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13, 127-138 and other sources

TreatmentEffect Size

  • Applied Behavior Analysis. + 1.00
  • CBM+Graphing+Formative

Evaluation + reinforcement + 1.00

  • Explicit Instruction and Problem

Solving + .70 to 1.50

  • Comprehension Strategies +1.00
  • Math Interventions +.60 to 1.10
  • Writing Interventions +.50 to .85

Reschly RTI

slide19

Policy and Legal Influences

  • NICHD LD Studies
  • Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S. & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
  • Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.pdf
  • National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Panel Report http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10128.html
  • LD Summit Researchers Recommendations (Bradley et al., 2002)
  • Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2002) report, http://www.ed.gov/inits/commissionsboards/whspecialeducation/reports.html

Reschly RTI

slide20

Commonalties in Policy Recommendations

  • Accountability-Improved results for all students and better results are possible!! (Gloeckler)
  • Integration of general, remedial, and sp ed through multiple tiers of intervention
  • Scientifically-based interventions with problem solving
  • Progress monitoring with formative evaluation
  • Decisions at all levels driven by child response to intervention
  • Abandon IQ-Achievement discrepancy in LD Identification

Reschly RTI

progression of federal general and special education legislation
Progression of Federal General and Special Education Legislation

1960-70s To 2000s

Assistance Results

[__________________________________________]

ESEA EHA NCLB/

Rdg 1st IDEA 2004

Procedures Outcomes

Number Served Improvement

Reschly RTI

major legal themes nclb idea
Major Legal Themes (NCLB, IDEA)
  • Scientifically-based instruction
  • More frequent assessment, progress monitoring, formative evaluation
  • Well integrated multiple tiers of Intervention
  • Decisions driven by child responses to instruction-intervention in general, remedial, and special education
  • Alignment of resources to enhance positive outcomes

Reschly RTI

slide23

Changes in Legal RequirementsIDEA (2004)

  • ‘‘(A) IN GENERAL.—Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.

Reschly RTI

response to intervention idea 2004
Response to Intervention (IDEA, 2004)
  • ‘‘(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY.—In deter- mining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures described in paragraphs (2) and (3).
  • Does response to intervention appear in the law?

Reschly RTI

final regulation
Final Regulation
  • NEW AND SIGNIFICANT:
  • (b must consider, as part of the evaluation described data that demonstrates that—
      • (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by qualified personnel; and
      • (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the child's parents.

Reschly RTI

prevention early intervention
Prevention-Early Intervention
  • LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification-treatment
  • Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals
  • Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior
  • MUST use the 15% if LEA has “significant disproportionality

Reschly RTI

slide27

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual and Small Groups
  • Intense, Prolonged Intervention
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • Standard protocol reading
  • interventions
  • Targeted Small Group or Individual
  • Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • Targeted Individual Behavior
  • Interventions
  • Universal Interventions
  • Effective Academic In-
  • struction
  • Universal Interventions
  • School-wide positive
  • Behavior
  • Effective classroom and
  • Behavior management

80-85%

80-85%

Multiple Tiers Implemented Through Progress Monitoring and Formative Evaluation (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002)

Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual and Small Groups
  • Intense, Prolonged Interventions

5-10%

5-10%

10-15%

10-15%

Reschly RTI

slide28

Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision

  • Tier I: General Education: All students; Effective instruction, 80-85% at benchmarks
  • Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving:(about 10 to 20 weeks)Small group and individualized interventions
  • Decision Making: Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation??
  • Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General and/or Special education
  • Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation

Reschly RTI

slide29

Multi-Tiered Behavior Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision

  • Level I: General Education : School wide positive discipline, effective classroom organization and management, teacher assistance teams
  • Level II: Individualized Problem Solving re: Behavior: Targeted, intense individual interventions in general education
  • Decision Making? Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation
  • Level III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General or Special education
  • Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation

Reschly RTI

formative evaluation
Formative Evaluation
  • Frequent assessment of progress
  • Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests
  • Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs
  • All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI

Reschly RTI

characteristics of effective formative evaluation measures
Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures
  • Direct measures of skills
  • Natural settings
  • Efficient re: costs and time required
  • Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills
  • Results can be graphed in relation to goals
  • Reliable in terms of stability
  • Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence
  • Example: CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension

Reschly RTI

tier i general education universal stage primary prevention
Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention
  • Academics and Behavior
    • Scientifically-based
    • Explicit instruction
    • Systematic intervention
    • Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported
  • Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior

Reschly RTI

tier i academic interventions
Tier I: Academic Interventions
  • Scientifically-based instruction in reading
    • Curricula-content-Big ideas, e.g., reading
      • Phonemic Awareness
      • Alphabetic principles
      • Fluency
      • Vocabulary
      • Comprehension
    • Study of IHEs pre-service preparation in rdg
      • 14 of 72 taught all 5 components and many taught none, see http://www.nctq.org/nctq/

Reschly RTI

slide34

IHEs and SBRR Five Components

Source

http://www.nctq.org/nctq

Sample

N=72

  • 5 Components
  • Phonemic
  • Alphabetic
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Compre-hension

43%

N=31

13%

15%

7%

11%

11%

N=11

N=8

N=8

N=9

N=5

Components

5 4 3 2 1 0

slide35

Tier I: Academic Interventions

  • Teaching Methodology Explicit Instruction
      • Modeling, guided practice, practice to automaticity, integration; You do it with feedback, You do it independently, You do it automatically
      • Frequent responding with feedback, Brisk pace
    • Systematic Instruction
      • Sequential, Hierarchical
      • Include all reading components each day
      • Beat the odds teachers: http://rea.mpls.k12.mn.us/BEAT_THE_ODDS_-_Kindergarten_Teachers.html

Reschly RTI

tier i assessment academics
Tier I: Assessment: Academics
  • Routine Assessment of Progress
    • Screen all students, begin in kindergarten; 3 times per year with appropriate early literacy measures
    • More intense instruction and monitoring within classroom for students below trajectories toward passing state benchmark tests
    • Grouping, instructional materials, time, paraprofessionals Pat Vadasy at U of WA
    • Increase assessment to 2 Xs per month

Reschly RTI

slide38

KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: Winter KTG

25 sounds correct/min.

New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide39

KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: Winter KTG

25 sounds correct/min.

Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide40

Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: 35 correct

New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide41

Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: May 35 per minute

Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide42

Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: 25 correct per minute

New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide43

Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: 25 correct per minute

Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction

Reschly RTI

slide44

KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January 05-06 Yr.

Benchmark: Winter KTG

25 sounds correct/min.

Students needing greater Gen’l Ed monitoring and Interventions

Reschly RTI

slide45

1st Gr. Nonsense

Word

Fluency

Benchmark: Winter First Grade

50 Words Per Minute

??

Reschly RTI

slide46

Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency

Benchmark: End of 1st=42 WCM

Winter=71 WCM

End of 2nd=100 WCM

??

Reschly RTI

behavioral assessment and cbm measures
Behavioral Assessment and CBM Measures
  • Focused on determination of change
  • Formative evaluation critical
  • Tied to effective practices and better outcomes
  • Applications in general, remedial, and special education
  • Identification of disabilities-integrates identification with treatment

Reschly RTI

why behavior assessment including cbm
Why Behavior Assessment (including CBM)
  • Determine current levels in academics and behavior; degree of need
  • Monitor progress, assess change
  • Foundation for formative evaluation-improving interventions
  • Determine success of interventions
  • Decisions based in child response to interventions

Reschly RTI

foundations of cbm
Foundations of CBM
  • Deno & Mirkin (1977) Breakthrough
  • Brief samples of behavior
    • Use of oral reading fluency samples
      • Production per unit of time
      • Fluency and accuracy combined
      • Words read correct per minute
    • Math-digits correct
    • Spelling-letters correct

Reschly RTI

prior barriers to cbm use
Prior Barriers to CBM Use
  • Cumbersome for practitioners, developing own passages
  • Conceptual issues: Passages from curriculum or generic passages?
  • Teachers’ concerns about comprehension: Word calling??
  • Inertia; satisfaction with current practices
  • IDEA: assessment of change not required

Reschly RTI

reading cbm
Reading CBM
  • Combines fluency (speed) and accuracy
  • Broad range of competencies including
    • Letter naming (Ktg)
    • Sound identification (Ktg)
    • Nonsense words or real word identification (Ktg to first grade)
    • Oral reading fluency (mid first to high school
    • Comprehension (maze, other methods)

Reschly RTI

importance of standardized cbm procedures
Importance of Standardized CBM Procedures
  • Standardized meaning uniformity in administration, scoring, interpretation
  • Prerequisite to use of data in
    • Determining risk status within classroom or school
    • Measuring change for individuals or groups
    • Predicting later performance

Reschly RTI

slide53

Oral Reading Fluency

  • What is it?
    • Reading aloud fluently and accurately from text.
  • Why do it?
    • Indicator of proficiency in reading that is sensitive to growth
    • Highly correlated with performance on standardized tests and tests of comprehension
    • Provides information that may be used to evaluate effects of instruction
  • Word Calling Myth

Reschly RTI

administering oral reading passages
Administering Oral Reading Passages
  • Essential Items

-One student copy

-One administration copy

-Timer or stopwatch (make sure to time exactly 1 min)

-Administration script

Reschly RTI

instructions to child
Instructions to Child
  • When I say “please begin” start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page. [Demonstrate by pointing] Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. If you get to the end of the page, start over. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? [Pause] Please begin.

Reschly RTI

examiner s administration rules
Examiner’s Administration Rules
  • After reading instructions to students,

Start timer. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 sec., tell him/her the word and mark it incorrect. If the student stops or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark it incorrect. If the student reaches the end of the page and does not continue, point to the first word and ask the student to start over. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after the last word and say, please stop.

Reschly RTI

scoring rules
Scoring Rules
  • Words must be pronounced correctly to be counted as correct
    • (disregard if mispronunciations due to speech problems or dialect)
  • Ignore inserted or repeated words

Reschly RTI

orf passage making friends from deno and amy reschly
ORF Passage: Making Friends(from Deno and Amy Reschly)

There once was a little girl named Ann who 9

was very shy. She was too shy to make friends. 19

Ann lived in an apartment building with her mother 28

and brother. Ann liked to play at the playground 37

near her apartment building. 41

One day Ann was playing on the swings when 50

Total words read = 49

Words read incorrectly = 3

Words read correctly = 46

Reschly RTI

what is recorded
What is recorded?
  • Give 3 Passages
  • Record the Median Score
  • Example:

If a student’s scores on the 3 passages were:

24 words read correctly

38 words read correctly

35 words read correctly

GO TO VIDEO

Reschly RTI

slide60

Sample passage from DIBELS, http://dibels.uoregon.edu/

The Ant Hill

Dad and I took a hike in the woods. We walked for a long 14

time and stopped to take a rest. We sat down on a log and had a 30

drink of water. A big hill was nearby. 38

Dad said, "Look, there's an ant hill." 45

I walked up to the hill and took a closer peek. At first it 59

looked just like a dirt hill. Then I noticed a few ants running 72

around. I looked closer.

Reschly RTI

slide61

Sample passage from DIBELS, http://dibels.uoregon.edu/

The Rainy Day Picnic

I was so sad. This was the day we were going to the park for 15

a picnic. I wanted to go to the playground. I wanted to swing. I 29

wanted to lay on the grass and look up at the fluffy clouds. But 43

that morning it was raining. There were puddles everywhere. 52

And we could hear thunder. I started to cry. 61

My mother said, "Wait! We will still have the picnic!" 71

I cried, "But how? It won't be fun if it's wet!" 82

Reschly RTI

slide62

Sample passage from DIBELS, http://dibels.uoregon.edu/

Visiting Aunt Rose

My Aunt Rose invited me to spend the weekend. Aunt Rose 11

doesn't have kids. She said I could be her kid for two days. She's 25

like my big sister. 29

I like to go to visit my Aunt Rose's home. She likes to do the 44

same things I like. I like to go swimming. So does my Aunt 57

Rose. The pool where she goes also has a hot tub. I like to sit in 73

the hot tub. So does my Aunt Rose. I always bring my swimming 86

Reschly RTI

slide63

Sample passage from DIBELS, http://dibels.uoregon.edu/

The Robin's Nest

There was a robin's nest outside our kitchen window. 'I he 10

nest was in a tall bush. The mother robin sat in the nest all day 25

long. One day when I was watching, the mother bird flew away. 37

I saw the eggs she was sitting on. There were four blue eggs. 50

I watched and watched. Pretty soon the eggs started to move. 61

I watched some more until the eggs started to crack. Finally-, the 73

eggs hatched. I saw four baby birds. The baby birds opened their 85

beaks wide. I heard them peeping. Soon the mother bird came 96

back. Then the mother robin put worms in their mouths. 106

Reschly RTI

slide64

Resources for Reading and Interventions

Good & Kaminski: DIBELS http://dibels.uoregon.edu/http://www.dibelsassessment.com/

Gary Germann and Mark Shinn AIMSWEB

WWW.AIMSWEB.COM ; WWW.EDFORMATION.COM

James Wright

www.interventioncentral.org

Vaughn-Gross Reading Center

http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/

Florida Reading Center-Torgesen/Wagner

http://www.fcrr.org/

Reschly RTI

math cbm
Math CBM
  • Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems

64

x 722

128 Answer=

128

448__

46208

Reschly RTI

slide66

Math CBM

  • Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems

64

x 722

128 3 pts Answer=17

128 0 4 pts

44800 5 pts

46208 5 pts

Reschly RTI

slide67

Math CBM

  • Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems

64

x 722

126 2 pts Answer=12

138 0 3 pts

54800 4 pts

56206 3 pts

Reschly RTI

tier i behavior
Tier I Behavior
  • Positive Behavior Supports (www.pbis.org)
  • Universal screening for behavior in early grades
  • Classroom organization and behavior management
  • Teacher Assistance Teams (many names)

Reschly RTI

slide69

Tier I Prevention School-wide Positive Behavior Supports

  • National Technical Assistance Center at www.pbis.org
  • PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.

Reschly RTI

slide70

PBIS: Characteristics of Support

1. Common purpose & approach to discipline

2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

Reschly RTI

tier i behavior early screening
Tier I Behavior: Early Screening
  • Focus on classroom and individuals
  • Screen all children for behavior
    • Aggressive behaviors-identify and treat at young ages
      • Treat through age 8; Manage after age 8
      • Early intervention much more effective than later
    • Social isolation
    • Bullying
    • Classroom related social skills (or academic enablers

Reschly RTI

tier i behavior importance of prevention and early identification early treatment
Tier I Behavior Importance of Prevention and Early Identification-Early Treatment
  • Walker et al (1995)
  • “If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured, but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing intervention” (p. 6).

Reschly RTI

multiple gating procedures walker severson 1995 sopris west
Multiple Gating Procedures (Walker & Severson, 1995) Sopris West

Teacher Ranking of Children ( 3 highest ranked) on

Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

Teacher Rating (Exceeds Norms)

Direct Observations and

Parental Questionnaire

Focused Interventions

Reschly RTI

slide74

Behavioral Earthquakes

  • Critical Behavioral Events
    • High impact-great intensity-low frequency behaviors: Behavioral Earthquakes
      • Fire setting, cruelty, extreme aggressiveness, suicide threats/attempts, physical confrontation, use of weapons, etc.
      • Should provoke immediate referral
      • School Archival Records Search (SARS)-Sopris

Reschly RTI

slide75

Tier I: Behavior cont.: Classroom Organization and Behavior Management (

http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/ss/se/classroommgmt.asp

  • Kellam, Baltimore Schools
    • Students randomly assigned to 1st grade teachers, then classroom was the unit of analysis
    • Classrooms observed during first 9 wks., high rates of disruptive behavior and aggression, large differences across classrooms
    • Classrooms randomly assigned to,
      • Experimental condition: Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al, 1969; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) vs.
      • Control condition of in-service on general curriculum issues

Reschly RTI

slide76

Kellam Research: Classroom Organization and Management

  • Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al., 1969)
    • Group contingency
    • Two groups formed into teams
    • Define rules and positive behaviors
    • Teams compete for positive consequences
    • Team with highest rate of appropriate behaviors earn “rewards”
      • Lining up first, Help teacher pick-up classroom, free time, etc.

Reschly RTI

kellam research effects of good behavior game were statistically significant
Kellam Research: Effects of Good Behavior Game Were Statistically Significant
  • Aggression and disruptive behavior continued in control classrooms
  • Marked reduction in experimental condition
  • Experimental classrooms had higher academic productivity and achievement
  • Aggressive students in both conditions followed through 6th grade and first grade classroom effects persisted
  • First grade experience sets academic and behavioral trajectory

Reschly RTI

tier i implications of behavior
Tier I: Implications of Behavior
  • Classroom organization and behavior management are crucial to student success
    • “Teacher’s skills at classroom management were then critical to children’s socialization, particularly in the face of family poverty.” (Kellam, et al., 1998a, p. 182)
    • “Teacher training typically does not provide effective methods and experience in classroom behavior management.” (Kellam, et al., 1998, p. 182).
  • Relatively simple, cost effective interventions can produce large and persistent effects

Reschly RTI

teacher support teams
Teacher Support Teams
  • For students who need additional support and intervention (1% to 5% of students)
  • Classroom based, teacher and/or team develops
  • One or two session problem solving
  • Minimal data requirements
  • Attempts over 3-4 weeks
  • Produce changes, then must sustain
  • Apply basic problem solving procedures

Reschly RTI

slide80

Basic Problem Solving (Teachers and School Teams) (Heartland Area Education Agency, Johnston, IA)

•Define the Problem

(Screening and Diagnostic Assessments)

What is the problem and why is it happening?

• Develop a Plan

(Goal Setting and Planning)

• Evaluate

(Progress Monitoring

Assessment)

What are we going to do?

Did our plan work?

• Implement Plan

(Treatment Integrity)

Reschly RTI

Carry out the intervention

tier i teacher support team analysis
Tier I: Teacher Support Team Analysis
  • What is student doing and why is it a problem
  • When is student successful and less likely to misbehave?
  • When is student less successful and more likely to misbehave
  • Why does behavior occur, what is student getting from the behavior
  • What other factors contribute to the behavior
  • Consider attention, escape, etc.

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slide82

Principles: Secondary Level(Sprick, R.S. (2006). Discipline in the secondary classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) (800-956-7739)

  • Basic behavioral strategies, Key concepts
  • Instructional design and evaluation systems
  • Prepare for routines and procedures
  • Expectations: Teach students to be successful
  • Rules and consequences, responding to misbehavior
  • Motivation: Enhancing desire to succeed
  • Proactive planning for misbehavior

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications
Middle and High School RTI Applications
  • Same principles and goals: Improve Results
    • Evidence-based interventions matched to student needs implemented with good fidelity
    • Data-based, progress monitoring with formative evaluation, that is, data on initial status, goals related to benchmarks, progress monitoring against goals, and changes in interventions based on progress
    • Decisions based on student responses to interventions

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications frequent goals at middle and high school
Middle and High School RTI Applications Frequent Goals at Middle and High School
  • Academic skills deficits
    • Teach skills in basic areas including reading and math
    • See Florida web site for teaching reading to adolescents at www.fcrr.org/
    • CBM used, progress at > 1 word correct growth per week, goals, graphs, formative evaluation, etc.
    • Significant needs for basic instruction

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications course involvement and completion
Middle and High School RTI Applications Course Involvement and Completion
  • Learning strategies: Systematic teaching of methods to learn content http://www.ku-crl.org/
  • Taught in context of general education classes, by general education teachers or special education teachers (resource program)
  • Significant effect sizes related to completion of courses, improved grades, and improved content mastery
  • Many students with these needs

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications effort and work completion
Middle and High School RTI Applications Effort and Work Completion
  • Can Do But Won’t Do
  • Unintended reinforcement for poor effort and low productivity
  • Interventions do improve both effort and productivity
  • Data are critical!!!
  • Data followed by interventions, etc.

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications school involvement and drop out
Middle and High School RTI Applications School Involvement and Drop Out
  • Drop out not an event, but a process
  • Encouragement to leave or to stay??
  • Drop out prevention measures
    • Find at risk kids
    • Ensure teacher encouragement, someone who cares, monitors, encourages
    • Formal programs like Check and Connect

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications middle and high school problem solving
Middle and High School RTI Applications Middle and High School Problem Solving
  • Define problem
  • Determine data, several weeks, months, years depending on the problem
  • Establish goals, Implement interventions, Monitor progress, Change interventions as necessary
  • Evaluate results

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications problem solving example
Middle and High School RTI Applications Problem Solving Example
  • Drop Out
    • Scientifically-based interventions
    • Identify proxies for drop out to permit early intervention, e. g., school attendance, disciplinary referrals, failing courses, etc.
    • Gather data on current conditions
    • Establish goals
    • Implement interventions
    • Monitor progress and change intervention if results do not meet reasonable goals

Reschly RTI

middle and high school rti applications problem solving example90
Middle and High School RTI Applications Problem Solving Example
  • Failing courses
    • Current status
    • Causes of failure (effort vs skills or both)
    • Goals for improvement (without lowering standards)
    • Interventions (brainstorm)
    • Monitor progress, change interventions as needed
    • Evaluate results

Reschly RTI

summary of tier i
Summary of Tier I
  • Universal level, all students
  • Scientifically-based, right content and direct instruction
  • Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories
  • Criterion for success? 80% to 85% are at or above benchmarks
    • Assess classrooms, schools, districts
    • Identify students needing additional assistance

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slide92

Tier II: Academic and Behavioral Interventions

  • Individual behavior interventions in general education that meet all criteria for problem solving
  • Individual or small group academic interventions, following
    • Standard protocol interventions (reading)
    • Individualized academic
    • Evidence based practices.

Reschly RTI

tier ii behavior problem solving criteria
Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria
  • Behavioral definition of the problem
  • Collection of data reflecting current level of performance
  • Comparison of current level of performance to expectations (peer comparisons, age or grade norms)
  • Development of goals for change in performance
  • Analysis of conditions (including prerequisite and current skills levels)

Reschly RTI

tier ii behavior problem solving criteria cont
Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria cont.
  • Development of an intervention plan that is written, systematic, and based on scientifically-based instructional or behavioral intervention principles
  • Development of an intervention plan that is written, systematic, and based on scientifically-based instructional or behavioral intervention principles
  • Implementation of the plan with treatment fidelity checks

Reschly RTI

tier ii behavior problem solving criteria cont95
Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria cont.
  • Progress monitoring data collected frequently, represented graphically, and results compared to goals
  • Changes are made in the intervention based on progress monitoring data
  • Evaluation of results with decisions made to consider more intensive interventions which may be special education

Reschly RTI

tier ii academic interventions vaughn et al 2003 exceptional children
Tier II Academic Interventions (Vaughn et al., 2003 Exceptional Children)
  • Goals: Move performance to benchmark trajectories and, If needed, consider more intensive interventions
  • Example of Tier II academic intervention
    • Small group, N=4-5, pull out, similar needs
    • 30 to 35 minutes per day in addition to classroom instruction
    • Progress monitoring weekly
    • 10 to 20 weeks of instruction
    • 5-component reading interventions, with emphasis on weak components

Reschly RTI

tier ii academics and behavior
Tier II: Academics and Behavior
  • Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings
    • Behavior (attention and on task) predict outcomes of academic interventions)
    • Standard protocol interventions use a point system to prompt and reinforce task engagement
    • Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings

Reschly RTI

slide98

Standard Protocol Reading Models for Tier II

  • http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/ U Texas, Vaughn
  • http://www.fcrr.org/ Florida State Torgesen
  • Reading five domains taught each day
  • Direct instruction
  • Weekly progress monitoring
  • Individual graphs, progress against goals referenced to benchmarks
  • Decisions determined by student response
    • Fade Tier II and return to general education
    • Consider Tier III based on insufficient response

Reschly RTI

slide99

Graph Current Status

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark=24

Egbert=11

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide100

Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egbert Goal: 2 wd growth per week

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide101

Monitor Egbert’s Progress Relative to Goal

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide102

Formative Evaluation: Change Intervention

Change

Intervention

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide103

Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress

Change

Intervention

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide104

Raise Goal to 2.5 WCM Growth

Change

Intervention

Change Goal

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide105

Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress

Change

Intervention

Change Goal

Fade Tier II

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egbert=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide106

Decisions Re: Egbert

  • Fade Tier II academic intervention
    • Reduce number of weekly sessions
    • Monitor progress to ensure continued progress
  • Evaluate behavioral intervention (not shown here)
    • Depending on results, consider enhancing, fading, or discontinuing
  • Do NOT consider more intensive interventions

Reschly RTI

slide107

Prevention of Special Education

President’s Commission (2002) Values and Outcomes:

  • Efficacy of special education is not universally documented—lowered expectations, reduced academic press
  • Later educational opportunities typically are better if learning and behavior problems can be resolved in early grades
  • Probable later career opportunities are better if students can complete general education programs
  • Prevention and early intervention enhance positive outcomes and expand educational and career opportunities

Reschly RTI

case ii egberta academic intervention
Case II: Egberta, Academic Intervention
  • Egberta (Egbert’s twin sister)
    • Similar performance in reading
    • No behavioral issues, described as quiet, cooperative child who tries hard and does not disrupt the class
    • Would not have been referred by teacher, but discovered through universal screening

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slide109

Egberta: Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egberta Goal: 2 wd growth per week

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egberta=11

Egbert goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide110

Monitor Egberta’s Progress Relative to Goal

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egberta=11

Egberta goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide111

Change Egberta’s Intervention

Change

Intervention

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Class=24

Egberta=11

Egberta goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

Reschly RTI

slide112

Implement Revised Intervention and Continue to Monitor Progress

Change

Intervention

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Egberta goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide113

Implement Second Intervention Revision

Change

Intervention

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Egberta goal line

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide114

Gap Not Closing: Consider Eligibility and More Intensive Interventions

Change

Intervention

Class

WCM=54

Words Correct Per Minute

Benchmark

Egberta

WCM=32

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Weeks

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slide115

Egberta Consideration of Eligibility

  • Levels Difference: Large performance differences compared to peers and benchmark expectations in relevant domains of behavior
  • Rate Difference: Large differences in rate of learning compared to peers and trajectories toward benchmark standards when provided with high quality interventions implemented over a significant period
  • Documented Adverse Impact on Education
  • Documented Need for Special Education
  • Exit Criteria
  • Exclusion Factors: Rule out MR etc.

Reschly RTI

what is a comprehensive evaluation
What is a Comprehensive Evaluation
  • Note Federal Regulation,
    • (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R. 300.532
  • Meaning? Note “if appropriate”

Reschly RTI

federal requirements
Federal Requirements
  • Multiple domains must be considered
  • Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, ……
    • If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN
    • In depth assessment in the domain
  • Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant

Reschly RTI

special education eligibility determination using rti
Special Education Eligibility Determination Using RTI
  • Recall problems with current system
  • Integrate identificaton with treatment
    • Level of skills
    • Pattern of skills, deficits and strengths
    • Evaluation of progress
    • Evaluation of outcomes
  • Enhance effectiveness of special education

Reschly RTI

slide122

Old Models of SLD Identification

  • Problems with severe discrepancy criteria
    • Unreliable (especially stability of discrepancy scores)
    • Invalid (IQ discrepant poor readers do NOT respond better than IQ non-discrepant poor readers to reading instruction)
    • Causes Harm (Wait to Fail)

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slide123

Old Models of SLD continued

  • Cognitive processing option ??
    • Scatter is normal, virtually all children will show significant strengths and weaknesses
    • Pattern of cognitive processes unrelated to
      • More accurate SLD identification
      • Improved instruction
      • Improved child outcomes
  • No scientifically-based studies showing benefits of designing instruction from cognitive profiles
    • Vested interests? and Burden of proof

Reschly RTI

cognitive processing strengths and weaknesses
Cognitive Processing Strengths and Weaknesses
  • ALL children have strengths and weaknesses
    • Normal readers? Not referred despite cognitive strengths and weaknesses
    • Poor readers? May be referred and, if so, cognitive strengths and weaknesses will be found
  • So what??
    • Improve accuracy of identification?
    • Improve interventions?
  • Cash validity is not sufficient

Reschly RTI

slide125

Cognitive Processing and Interventions: ATI or Matching Strengths Effects

  • Treatment/Intervention Effect Size

Modality Matched Instr. (Aud.) +.03

Modality Matched Instr. (Vis.) +.04

Simultaneous/Successive .??

Right Brain/Left Brain .??

Cultural Leaning Style .00

NOTHING FOR KIDS

FEEL GOOD ASSESSMENT

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slide126

Results of ATI Research

  • King of England describing his Danish brother-in-law: There is nothing there.
  • Cronbach, (1975). “Once we attend to interactions, we enter a hall of mirrors that extends to infinity.” (p. 119)
  • Kavale (1999) No supportive data, but cannot kill “Phoenix-like” processing claims
  • Vaughn and Linan-Thompson (2003), “There is no empirical support for the use of modality-matched instruction or learning styles as a means to enhance outcomes for students with LD.” (p. 142).

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slide127

Challenge to Cognitive Processing Advocates in SLD

  • Show the field one scientifically-based study confirming a statistically significant interaction between cognitive processing pattern and teaching methodology OR
  • Document how cognitive processing can be used by practitioners to make reliable and valid SLD diagnoses, using the joint APA-AERA-NCME Test Standards?

Reschly RTI

digression neuropsychology and neuroscience
Digression: Neuropsychology and Neuroscience
  • Distinguish between neuropsychology and neuroscience
  • Neuropsychology is dependent on psychometric profiles
    • Difference scores are less reliable
    • Scatter is normal
    • Base rates for profile variations
    • Flat profiles are atypical
  • Nearly all have profile variations

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neuroscience findings
Neuroscience Findings
  • Instruction in decoding changes brain functioning on fMRI
  • Neuroscience findings generally refute traditional neuropsychology with learning problems
  • Neurological functioning more dynamic, less static
  • Little practical application of fMRI to current school psychology practice
  • No unique LD markers!!

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slide130

Digression: fMRI Studies

  • Science article: fMRIs of boys and girls engaged in decoding-Girls used both hemispheres, boys one
  • Implications??
    • Do fMRI to find real LD?
    • Abandon IQ and go to fMRIs
    • Trade the hatchback for an 18 wheeler
    • Cost issues: $3m per machine, plus maintenance

Reschly RTI

more fmri implications
More fMRI Implications
  • Delay reading until both hemispheres work for males simultaneously
    • So that is going to happen?
  • Equity issue---restrict girls to one hemisphere; hemispherectomy
    • Hey, fair is fair
  • Improve male-female communication if females could use only one hemisphere at a time
    • Wait until I tell Krisann

Reschly RTI

disproportionality legal requirements
Disproportionality Legal Requirements
  • §300.173 Overidentification and disproportionality
  • States must collect data on to determine if significant disproportionality by race exists re:
    • Identification of students with disabilities by category
    • Placement options used, i.e., LRE profile
    • Incidence and kind of disciplinary actions including suspensions and expulsions

Reschly RTI

disproportionality legal requirements133
Disproportionality Legal Requirements
  • §300.173 Overidentification and disproportionality continued
  • If significant disproportionality exists, the state must
    • Review and, if appropriate, revise the policies, procedures, and practices used in identification or placement
    • Allocate 15% of IDEA funds to EIS, especially focusing on children significantly overidentified
    • Require the LEA to publicly report on the revision of policies, practices, and procedures described under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

Reschly RTI

nrc overrepresentation panel digression disproportionality
NRC Overrepresentation Panel: Digression: Disproportionality
  • What were the real issues?
  • Was IQ the issue?
  • Did an IQ test ban resolve disproportionality or improve outcomes
  • Reschly (1980) Right problem-Wrong Solution

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slide135

NRC Report: Causes of Overrepresentation

  • Biological factors
  • Social factors
  • General education experiences
  • Special education system

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centrality of outcomes in disproportionality
Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality
  • Judge Peckham commenting on the 1979 Trial Opinion ban on IQ tests,

“… clearly limited to the use of IQ tests in the assessment and placement of African-American students in dead end programs such as MMR.” (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p. 15).

Reschly RTI

centrality of outcomes in disproportionality cont
Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality, cont.

“ Despite the Defendants’ attempts to characterize the court’s 1979 order as a referendum on the discriminatory nature of IQ testing, this court’s review of the decision reveals that the decision was largely concerned with the harm to African-American children resulting from improper placement in dead-end educational programs.” (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p.23).”

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slide138

Overrepresentation PanelNRC Recommendations

  • Universal early screening for academic and behavioral problems (Ktg-Grade2)
  • Early identification-interventions
  • Multi-tiered academic and behavioral interventions
  • RtI for eligibility-eliminate IQ for LD
  • Eligibility: non-categorical for high incidence disabilities OR change current classification criteria for LD

Reschly RTI

slide139

Overall Conclusion

“ There is substantial evidence with regard to both behavior and achievement that early identification and intervention is more effective than later identification and intervention.” Executive Summary, p. 5

Efficacy of special education with reading problems after grade 3?

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slide140

Solutions to Significant Disproportionality

  • Prevention, especially improving reading
    • ~60% of 4th grade black students read below basic; inexcusable!
  • Eligibility determination procedures and decision making
    • Focus on RTI and needs, consider alternatives to sp ed
  • Intensive interventions and special education exit for ~20% to 40%
    • Torgesen et al. studies

Reschly RTI

overrepresentation panel nrc recommendations cont
Overrepresentation PanelNRC Recommendations cont.
  • …. no IQ test would be required, and the results of an IQ test would not be a primary criterion on which eligibility rests. Because of the irreducible importance of context in the recognition and nurturance of achievement, the committee regards the effort to assess students’ decontextualized potential or ability as inappropriate and scientifically invalid. (p. 313).

Reschly RTI

rti in special education programs
RTI in Special Education Programs
  • Special education programs should be,
    • Scientifically based
    • Matched to student need
    • Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria)
    • Formative evaluation
    • Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting
  • Current special education programs????

Reschly RTI

special education for students with high incidence disabilities
Special Education for Students with High Incidence Disabilities
  • High Incidence Disabilities
    • Mild Mental Retardation
    • Emotional Disturbance
    • Specific Learning Disability
    • Other Health Impaired-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Rate is 1% or more of the general student population

Reschly RTI

high incidence disabilities
High Incidence Disabilities
  • School age identification
  • Usually not identified as adults
  • Teacher referral due to poor achievement plus, for many, disruptive behavior
  • No identifiable biological anomaly, normal appearance
  • Reading is a major concern for most (70%-80%)

Reschly RTI

improving ieps
Improving IEPs
  • Connect individual evaluation with IEP with Special Education Interventions
  • Critical IEP Components (relevant to the intervention) (not an exhaustive list)
    • Present Levels of Educational Performance
    • Measurable Annual Goals
    • Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified personnel
    • Participation in the general education curriculum and state wide assessments

Reschly RTI

present levels of educational performance
Present Levels of Educational Performance
  • Must be related to the full and individual evaluation
  • Desirable
    • Stated in terms of the school curriculum
    • Specification of gaps between current performance and trajectories toward reaching benchmarks
    • Exit criteria for special education dismissal

Reschly RTI

measurable annual goals
Measurable Annual Goals
  • Goals are described in objective, measurable terms
  • Goals are stated in terms of the general education curriculum
    • Rate of progress specified, graphed
    • Skills specified
    • Progress compared to goals
    • Interventions changed or goals changed depending on progress

Reschly RTI

specially designed instruction
Specially Designed Instruction
  • Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN
  • Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction
    • Intensity involves time, group size
    • Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills
    • Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods

Reschly RTI

special education final remarks
Special Education Final Remarks
  • Special education can be effective
    • Set of services brought to students, not a place
    • Integrated with general education curriculum
    • Strong accountability
    • Implementation of scientifically based interventions with
    • Specification of goals
    • Frequent progress monitoring
    • Formative evaluation
    • Exit criteria

Reschly RTI

critical skills competencies
Critical Skills/Competencies
  • Problem solving-interviewing skills
  • Behavior assessment including CBM
  • Powerful instructional interventions
  • Powerful behavior change interventions
  • Relationship skills
  • Tailoring assessment to referral concerns

Reschly RTI

continuing education problem solving and system design
Continuing Education: Problem solving and system design
  • Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D. III, & Grimes, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
  • Bergan, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1990). Behavioral consultation and therapy. New York: Plenum.
  • Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.

Reschly RTI

continuing education cbm cbe behavioral assessment
Continuing Education: CBM, CBE, Behavioral Assessment
  • Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement: New York: Guilford Press.
  • Shapiro, E. S. (Ed.) (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Reschly RTI

continuing education academic and behavioral interventions
Continuing Education: Academic and Behavioral Interventions
  • Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.
  • Howell, K. & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd Ed.). Atlanta, GA: Wadsworth.
  • Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., & Stoner, G. (2002).  Interventions for academic and behaviors problems II:  Preventive and remedial approaches.  Bethesda, MD: NASP

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slide154

Summary

Moving from where we are to where we need to be is a huge challenge for the new century

BUT I Believe

The Best Is Yet To Be

Reschly RTI