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Quandle Cocycle Invariants for Knots, Knotted Surfaces and Knotted 3-Manifolds

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## Quandle Cocycle Invariants for Knots, Knotted Surfaces and Knotted 3-Manifolds

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**Quandle Cocycle Invariants for Knots, Knotted Surfaces and**Knotted 3-Manifolds Witold Rosicki (Gdańsk)**Definition**A quandle is a set X with a binary operation (a,b)→ab such that: 1) For any aX, aa=a. 2) For any a,b X, there is a unique cX such that cb=a. 3) For any a,b,c X , we have (ab)c=(ac)(bc). A rack is a set with a binary operation that satisfies 2) and 3). A kei or (involutory quandle) is a quandle with the additional property: (ab)b=a for any a,b X. Kei- Takasaki 1942, rack- Conway 1959, quandle Joyce 1978, Matveev 1982**Examples:**• 1)X={0,1,…,n-1}, ij= 2j-i mod n. • X=G a group, ab= b-nabn. • Definition • Let X be a fixed quandle and let K be a given diagram • of an oriented classical link and let R be the set of over-arcs • (bridges). A quandle coloring is a map c:R→X such that: c(α)=a c(β)=b for every crossing. c(γ)=ab**The Reidemeister moves**I II III**The Reidemeister moves preserves the quandle coloring.**cb I II c a a a a b b aa a c b a b c a ab III ac bc (ab)c (ac)(bc) bc c c**Similarly we can define the quandle coloring for knotted**surfaces Definition Let X be a fixed quandle and let K be a given diagram of an oriented knotted surface in R4 with a given regular projection p:R4→R3 . Let D be the closure of the set of higher points of the double points of the projection p and let R be the set of regions, which we obtain removing D fom our surface. A quandle coloring is a map c:R→X such that: ab a b**Definition**Two knotted surfaces in R4 areequvalent if there exist an ambiet isotopy of R4 maping one onto other. Theorem (Roseman 1998) Two knotted surfaces are equivalent iff one of the broken surface diagram can be obtained from the other by a finite sequence of moves from the list of the 7 moves, presented below and ambient isotopy of the diagrams in 3-space.**The Roseman moves preserves the quandle coloring,**so the quandle coloring is an invariant of an equivalent class. Similarly we can define the quandle coloring of knotted 3-manifolds in 5-space. There exist 12 Roseman moves such that two knotted 3-manifolds in 5-space are equivalent iff there exist a finite sequence of these moves between their diagrams. The Roseman moves preserve the quandle coloring of 3-manifolds in 5-space.**Homology and Cohomology Theories of Quandles.**(J.S.Carter, D.Jelsovsky, S.Kamada, L.Langford and M.Saito 1999, 2003) Let CRn(X) be the free abelian group generated by n-tuples (x1,…,xn) of elements of a quandle X. Define a homomorphism ∂n: CRn(X)→CRn-1(X) by for n≥2 and ∂n =0 for n≤1. Then CR(X)= {CRn (X),∂n } is a chain complex.**Let CDn(X) be the subset of CRn(X) generated by n-tuples**(x1,…,xn ) with xi =xi+1 or some i {1,…,n-1} if n≥2; otherwise CDn(X)=0. CD*(X) is a sub-complex of CR*(X) CQn(X)= CRn(X)/CDn(X) with ∂’n induced homomorphism. For an abelian group G, define the chain and cochain complexes: CW*(X;G)= CW*(X) G, ∂=∂ id C*W(X;G)= Hom(CW*(X),G), δ=Hom(∂,id) where W= D,R,Q.**As usually, ker ∂n = ZWn (X;G) and im ∂n+1=BWn(X;G)**HWn(X;G)= Hn(CW*(X;G))= ZWn(X;G)/BWn(X;G) ker δn =ZnW(X;G) and im δn-1= BnW(X;G) HnW(X;G)= Hn(C*W(X;G))= ZnW(X;G)/BnW(X;G) Example: A function Φ:X×X→G forwhich the equalities Φ(x,z)+Φ(xz,yz)=Φ(xy,z)+Φ(x,y) and Φ(x,x)= 0 are satisfied for all x,y,z X is a quandle 2-cocycle ΦZ2Q(X;G)**The quandle cocycle knot invariant:**y x (x,y) xy**cb=a**I II -(a,b) (a,a)=0 c (a,b) a a a a b b aa a c b a b c a III ab (b,c) (ab,c) (a,b) (ac,bc) (a,c) ac (b,c) bc (ab)c (ac)(bc) bc c c**(a,c)+(b,c)+(ac,bc)=(a,b)+(b,c)+(ab,c)**(a,c)+(b,c)+(ac,bc)=(a,b)+(b,c)+(ab,c) (a,c)+(ac,bc)=(a,b)+(ab,c) Example (from picture 14): A function Φ:X×X→G for which the equalities Φ(x,z)+Φ(xz,yz)=Φ(xy,z)+Φ(x,y) and Φ(x,x)= 0 are satisfied for all x,y,z X is a quandle 2-cocycle ΦZ (X;G)**b**c a**c**(ac)(bc) b bc a ac III ab (ab)c c b bc a c b a b c a ab III ac bc (ab)c (ac)(bc) c c**(ac,bc)**(b,c) b bc a ac (a,c) III (ab,c) ab (ab)c c b bc a (a,b) (b,c) (a,c)+(b,c)+(ac,bc)=(a,b)+(b,c)+(ab,c) (a,c)+(ac,bc)=(a,b)+(ab,c)**Let C is a given coloring of a knotted surface, then for**each triple point we have assigned a 3-cocycle . a (a,b,c) b c**We can define a quandle 3-cocycle invariant of the position**of a surface in a 4-space. The Roseman moves preserve this invariant. The first sum is taken over all possible colorings of the given diagram K of the surface in 4-space and the second sum (product) is taken over all triple points. This theory is described in the book of S.Carter, S.Kamada and M.Saito „Surface in 4-Sace”.**For a knotted 3-manifold in 5-space and its projection we**can define similar: or where the first sum is taken over all possible colorings of the given diagram K of the 3-manifold in 5-space and the second sum (product) is taken over all with multiplicity 4 points. Φis an invariant of position if all 12 Roseman moves preserve it.**Pointswiththe multiplicity 4 appear only in 3 Roseman moves:**e, f, l . In „e” two points τ1, τ2 with multiplicity 4 and opposite orientations appear. Therefore ε(τ1)= -ε(τ2) and ε(τ1)Φ-ε(τ2)Φ=0. In „l” Φ=0 because two colors must be the same. The calculation in „f” is essential. We will calculatesimilarly on a picture in 3-space, similarlylike we calculated on a line in the case of a classical knot. We will project the 4-space onto „the horizontal” 3-space. „The vertical” 3-spaces will represent as planes. „The diagonal” 3-space will project onto whole 3-space. The red triangle will represent the plane of the intersection of the horizontal and the diagonal 3-spaces.**x1**x4 x2 x3 x5**x4**x1 x1x3 5 x2 x2x3 x3 x1x2 4 3 1 x5 2**+Φ(x2,x3,x4,x5)**• -Φ(x1x2,x3,x4,x5) • +Φ(x1x3,x2x3,x4,x5) • +Φ(x1,x2,x3,x5) • -Φ(x1,x2,x3,x4) The orientation in the points with multiplicity 4 is given by normal vectors (represented by red arrows) : [1,0,0,0], [0,-1,0,0], [0,0,1,0], [1,-1,1,1], [0,0,0,-1] .**x4**x2 x3 x1 x5**x4**x1x3 x1x4 x2 x2x3 x3 x1x2 x1 2 1 3 4 x5 x2x5 5 x3x5 x4x5**+Φ(x2,x3,x4,x5)**• -Φ(x1, x3,x4,x5) • 3) +Φ(x1,x2, x4,x5) • 4) +Φ(x1x4,,x2x4,x3x4,x5) • 5) -Φ(x1x5,x2x5,x3x5,x4x5)**If Φ is a 4-cocycle then**δ(Φ)(x1,x2,x3,x4,x5)= Φ(∂(x1,x2,x3,x4,x5 ))= =Φ(x1,x3,x4,x5) - Φ(x1x2,x3,x4,x5) - Φ(x1,x2,x4,x5)+ +Φ(x1x3,x2x3,x4,x5)+Φ(x1,x2,x3,x5) –Φ(x1x4,x2x4,x3x4,x5) – - Φ (x1,x2,x3,x4)+Φ(x1x5,x2x5,x3x5,x4x5) =0 • +Φ(x2,x3,x4,x5) • -Φ(x1x2, x3,x4,x5) • +Φ(x1x3,x2x3,x4,x5) • +Φ(x1,x2,x3,x5) • -Φ(x1,x2,x3,x4) +Φ(x2,x3,x4,x5) -Φ(x1, x3,x4,x5) +Φ(x1,x2, x4,x5) +Φ(x1x4,,x2x4,x3x4,x5) -Φ(x1x5,x2x5,x3x5,x4x5) = This observation probably will be a part of a paper which we are going to write with Jozef Przytycki.