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Kön & Makt / K øn & Magt i Norden. ” Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” Med de nationale rapporter fra Danmark og Sverige Drude Dahlerup, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet Nordisk Ministerråd, Reykjavik 18-19 November 2009. Vår nordiska barnatro.

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K n makt k n magt i norden
Kön & Makt / Køn & Magt i Norden

  • ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?”

  • Med de nationale rapporter fra Danmark og Sverige

    Drude Dahlerup, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet

    Nordisk Ministerråd, Reykjavik 18-19 November 2009


V r nordiska barnatro
Vår nordiska barnatro

  • 1. Norden ligger bäst till i världen, när det gäller jämställdhet/ligestilling

  • 2. Det går ständigt framåt med jämställdheten

  • (Teigen & Skjeie: Rejse-metaforen – vi er på vej fremad!)


Women s parliamentary representation world averages 2009
Women’s Parliamentary Representation – world averages 2009

  • (single or lower houses of parliament)

  • Americas: 22.4 %

  • Europe 21.0 %

  • Asia: 18.5 %

  • Sub-Saharan Africa: 18.3 %

  • Pacific: 13.0 %

  • Arab countries: 9.7 %

  • World average 18.7 %

  • (Nordic countries: 41.8. European Parl. 35.1


World competition
World competition

  • For very long time the Nordic countries and the Netherlands were alone at the top of the world rank order on women’s representation

  • That is no longer the case


Top 15 lower single houses 2009
TOP 15 - Lower/single Houses 2009

1. Rwanda 56.3 (2008) Legal Quotas PR

2. Sweden 47.3 (2006) Party Quotas PR

3. South Africa 44.5 (2009) Party Quotas PR

4. Cuba 43.2 (2008) NA Plurality/maj

5. Iceland 42.9 (2009) Party Quotas PR

6. Finland 42.0 (2007) No Quotas PR

7. Argentina 41.6 (2009) Legal Quotas PR

8. Norway 39.6 (2009) Party Quotas PR

9. Costa Rica 38.6 ( 2006) Legal Quotas PR

10. Denmark 37.4 (2007) No Quotas PR

11. Angola 37.3 (2008) Legal Quotas PR

12.Belgium 36.7 (2007) Legal Quotas PR

13.Netherlands 36.7 (2006) Party Quotas PR

14. Spain 36.3 (2008) Legal Quotas PR

15. Mozambique 34.8 (2004) Party Quotas PR

Election day figures. Party quotas: if at least one party represented in parl. uses voluntary quotas


Danmark
Danmark

”Køn og magt i dansk politik og centraladministration”

Forfatter: Christina Fiig, Aalborg Universitet


Overblik over de politisk valgte kvindeandelen
Overblik over de politisk valgte- kvindeandelen, %

1993-4 2005-09

  • Folketinget 34 38

  • Amtsråd/regionsråd 31 34

  • Kommuner 28 27 (2005)

  • Regeringen 33 42 (2009)

  • EU-parlamentet 44 46 (2009)


Glasloftet
Glasloftet

  • En metafor for strukturelle barrierer eller strukturel diskrimination

  • Är kvinnorna problemet eller institutionerna?


K n och politisk makt i sverige

Kön och politisk makt i Sverige

Författare: Christna Alnevall,

Statsvetenskapliga Insitutionen, Stockholms Universitet


Sverige

Kvinnorepresentationens utveckling i Sveriges Riksdag, 1921-2006

Källa: SCB (2008)

Sverige


Ledam ter i kommunfullm ktige de st rsta partierna i hela landet
Ledamöter i kommunfullmäktige, 1921-2006de största partierna i hela landet

  • 1991: 1 parti över 40% kvinnor

  • 1994 och 1998: 3 partier över 40% kvinnor

  • 2002 och 2006: 5 partier över 40% kvinnor

  • Moderaterna och Kristdemokraterna ligger i senaste valet, 2006, under 40%

  • ”Övriga partier” under 30%


K nskvotering i politiken popul rt och kontroversiellt
Könskvotering i politiken – populärt och kontroversiellt 1921-2006

  • Almost 50 countries have introduced electoral gender quotas in their constitution or electoral law.

  • In more than 50 other countries some political parties make use of voluntary party quotas for their electoral list

  • A global overview:

  • Drude Dahlerup (ed): “Women, Quotas and Politics”. Routledge 2006.

  • www.quotaproject.org


Brugen af kvotering i nordisk politik
Brugen af kvotering i Nordisk politik 1921-2006

DK FI IS N S

1980’erne:

Råd, styrelser m.v Ja Ja Ja Ja Rek.

1980-90’erne:

Frivillig partikvotering (Nej) Nej Ja Ja Ja

1990’erne:

Kommunal kvotering Nej Ja Nej Ja Nej

2000-tallet:

Aktieselskaberne Nej Nej Nej Ja Nej


Why are electoral gender quotas so controversial and yet so popular
Why are electoral gender quotas so controversial, and yet so popular?

  • May be because quotas is a very simple answer to a complex question!

  • And because quotas work – provided the quota rules match the electoral system, include rank order rules, and sanctions for non-compliance


New strategies and tools
New strategies and tools popular?

  • What to do when the Nordic incremental model has stopped working?

  • Worst case scenario: A continuous belief in a constant progress, that is no longer taking place!


Two discourses on women s under representation in political institutions
Two discourses on women popular?’s under-representation in political institutions:

  • 1. The incremental track discourse –

  • Typical for the Nordic countries until recently

  • 2. The fasttrack discourse –

  • The Beijing Platform for Action

  • Constructed as two ideal types

  • Drude Dahlerup & Lenita Freidenvall: ”Quotas as a ’fast track’ to equal representation for women. Why Scandinavia is no longer the model” Int. Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 7, no.1.,2005.


The incremental track discourse
The Incremental track discourse popular?:

  • 1. Problem-diagnosis

  • Women’s lack of resources and old prejudice

  • 2. Goal

  • ‘More women in politics’

  • 3. Strategy

  • Increase women’s resources and commitment

  • 4. General perception of the cause of history:

  • Equal representation may take decades, but will eventually be achieved in due course as country develops.


The fast track discourse
The fast track discourse: popular?

  • 1. Problem-diagnosis

  • Exclusion and discrimination

  • 2. Goal

  • ‘Gender balance in politics’

  • 3. Strategy

  • Affirmative actions, electoral gender quotas

  • 4. General perception of the cause of history:

  • Women’s representation does not increase by some historical necessity. Backlash may even be possible.


Rank order rules are necessary
Rank-order rules are necessary popular?

  • (legislated and voluntary gender quotas)

  • 1. Zipper system – alternation throughout the list (mostly Left and Green parties)

  • 2. The top two cannot be of the same sex (Belgium – 50 % for whole list)

  • 3. 40:60 for every 5 posts on the list. If less than 5 ’eligible’ posts, as close to 40:60 as possible (Spain).


Sanctions for non compliance
Sanctions for non-compliance: popular?

  • (legal quota systems)

  • 1. Rejection of the list (Spain, Slovenia, France at the local level)

  • 2. Places shall remain empty (Belgium)

  • 3. Financial penalty (France at the national level, Portugal)


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