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MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY. By : Prof. Dr. Tien R. Muchtadi. DEFINITIONS. INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBRANE PROCESS TYPES OF MEMBRANE REJECTION COEFFICIENT NOMINAL MW CUT-OFF GENERAL MEMBRANE EQUATION. INTRODUCTIONS.

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Membrane technology

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

By :

Prof. Dr. Tien R. Muchtadi


Definitions
DEFINITIONS

  • INTRODUCTION

  • CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBRANE PROCESS

  • TYPES OF MEMBRANE

  • REJECTION COEFFICIENT

  • NOMINAL MW CUT-OFF

  • GENERAL MEMBRANE EQUATION


Introductions
INTRODUCTIONS

  • Effective product separation is crucial to economic operation in process industries

  • However, certain types of materials are inherently difficult and expensive to separate

  • Prominent examples include :

    • Finely dispersed solids, especially those which are compressible, have a density close to that of the liquid phase, have high viscosity, or are gelatinous

    • Low molecular weight, non-volatile organics or pharmaceuticals and dissolved salts

    • Biological materials which are very sensitive to their physical and chemical environment


  • A membrane may be defined as “an interphase separating two phases and selectively controlling the transport of materials between those phases

  • Since 1960s a new technology using synthetics membrane for process separations has been rapidly developed by materials scientist, physical chemist and chemical engineers

  • Such membrane separations have been widely applied to a range of conventionally difficult separation


Classification of membrane processes
CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBRANE PROCESSES phases and selectively controlling the transport of materials between those phases

  • Industrial membrane process may be classified according to the size range of materials which they are to separate and the driving force used in separations.

  • There is always a degree of arbitrariness about such classification and the distinction which are typically drawn are shown in Table. 1



The nature of synthetic membranes
THE NATURE OF SYNTHETIC MEMBRANES liquid systems

  • Membrane used for separation process are most commonly made of polymeric materials

  • Membrane have most commonly been produced by a form of phase inversion known as immersion precipitation

  • This process has four main steps :

    • The polymer is dissolved in a solvent to 10-30 per cent by weight

    • The resulting solution is cast on suitable support as film of thickness ~ 100 µm

    • The film is quenched by immersion in non-solvent bath, typically water or an aqueous solution

    • The resulting membrane is annealed by heating


General membrane equation
GENERAL MEMBRANE EQUATION liquid systems

  • The general membrane equation is an attempt to state the factor which may be important in determining the membrane permeation rate for pressure driven processes

  • Form :

    J = |Δ P| - |ΔΠ|

    (Rm + Rc + Rf‘)µ


  • J : the membrane permeation rate (flux expressed as volumetric rate per unit area)

  • Δ P : the pressure difference applied across the membrane (trans membrane pressure)

  • ΔΠ : the difference in osmotic pressure across the membrane

  • Rm : the resistance of the membrane

  • Rc : the resistance of the layers depasited on the membrane (filter cake, gel foulants)

  • Rf‘ : the resistance of the film layer


  • If the membrane is only exposed to pure solvent, exp water the equation become :

    J = |ΔP|/Rmµ

  • For microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes where solvent flow is most often essentially laminar through an arrangement of tortous channels, this is analogous to the Carman-Kozeny equation

  • Knowledge of such as water fluxes is useful for characterising new membrane and also for assesing the efectiveness of membrane cleaning procedures


Membrane process
MEMBRANE PROCESS the equation become :

  • MICROFILTRATION

  • ULTRAFILTRATION (U/F)

  • REVERSE OSMOSIS (R/O) OR HYPERFILTRATION (H/F)

  • MEMBRANE MODULES AND CONFIGURATIONS

  • MEMBRANE FOULING, FLUX RATE REDUCTION, CLEANING AND PROCESS ECONOMICS


Microfiltration
MICROFILTRATION the equation become :

  • Such filters use filter cloths as the filtration medium and are limited to concentrating particles above 5 µm in size

  • Dead end membrane microfiltration, in which the particle containing fluid is pumped directly through a polymeric membrane, is used for industrial clarification and sterilization of liquids


The advantage of cross-flow filtration over conventional filtration are :

  • A higher overall liquid removal rate is achieved by prevention of the formation of an extensive filter cake

  • The process feed remains in the form of mobile slurry suitable for further processing

  • The solids content of the product slurry may be varied over a wide range

  • It may be possible to fractionate particles of different sizes


Membrane filtration are :

Permeate

Processing feed crossflow

Retentate

Permeate

Figure 1. The Concept of Cross-Flow Filtration



C filtration are :

Membrane permeation rate

b

a

Time

Figure 3. The time-dependence of membrane permeation rate duringcross-flow filtration : a. low cross-flow velocuty, b. increased cross-flow velocity, c. back-fushing at the bottom of each”saw-tooth”


Membrane fouling and effects
MEMBRANE FOULING AND EFFECTS filtration are :

  • MEMBRANE FOULING

  • FLUX RATE REDUCTION

  • CLEANING METHODS

  • PROCESS ECONOMICS : EFFECT OF FLUX RATE REDUCTION AND MEMBRANE LIFE ON OPERATING COSTS AND RETURN ON CAPITAL INVESMENT


Electrodialysis
ELECTRODIALYSIS filtration are :

  • OUTLINE OF MEMBRANE OPERATION

  • MEMBRANE TYPE AND TRANSPORT MECHANISM

  • APPLICATIONS


Liquid membranes
LIQUID MEMBRANES filtration are :

  • TYPES

  • OPERATING MECHANISM

  • PRODUCT RECOVERY

  • APPLICATIONS


Gas separations
GAS SEPARATIONS filtration are :

  • MECHANISM

  • TYPES OF MEMBRANE

  • APPLICATIONS


Concentration or gel polarisation model
CONCENTRATION OR GEL POLARISATION MODEL filtration are :

  • APPLICATION OF THE DESIGN MODEL TO THE ULTRAFILTRATION CONCENTRATION AND SEPARATION OF GEL FORMING PROTEIN SOLUTION

  • CALCULATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS


Applications of membrane technology
APPLICATIONS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY filtration are :

  • FOOD PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING

  • BIOTECHNOLOGY, MEMBRANE REACTORS

  • BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

  • PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

  • GROUP DISCUSSTION AND PROBLEM SOLVING


Teknologi separasi membran
TEKNOLOGI SEPARASI MEMBRAN filtration are :

  • Proses pemisahan komponen berdasarkan perbedaan berat dan ukuran molekul melalui suatu membran semipermeabel, dimana akan diperoleh komponen dengan ukuran molekul besar akan tertahan (retentate) dan komponen yang melewati membran (permeate)


Klasifikasi proses membran
KLASIFIKASI PROSES MEMBRAN filtration are :

Berdasarkan pada driving force yang digunakan :

  • Mikrofiltrasi

  • Ultrafiltrasi

  • Reverse osmosis

  • Elektrodialysis

  • Dialysis

Paling banyak digunakan untuk pengolahan produk pangan


What is reverse osmosis
What Is Reverse Osmosis? filtration are :

Reverse osmosis, as form of water treatment, is a technology in its infancy. The first membrane was developed in 1958. In the years following, membrane technology has grown a great deal and will continue to grow in the future. In fact, some of the membranes that are currently in use may be obsolete in a very short time, in favor of some new membrane material that is more resistant to a particular fouling contaminant.

The reverse osmosis membrane is used for various applications from precious metal reclamation, to chemical reclamation, food processing nuclear waste reclamation, laboratory water purification, and on and on. We will limit our discussion to water purification and its laboratory applications.


To fully understand the technology of reverse osmosis, you must first understand the concept of normal osmosis. Simply put, in normal osmosis, water flows from a less concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution (see figure 1). Reverse osmosis utilizes pressure to reverse normal osmotic flow, thus in reverse osmosis water flows from a more concentrated solution across semipermeable membrane to a less concentrated solution (see figure 2).


Bahan baku membran ultrafiltrasi
BAHAN BAKU MEMBRAN ULTRAFILTRASI must first understand the concept of normal osmosis. Simply put, in normal osmosis, water flows from a less concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution (see figure 1). Reverse osmosis utilizes pressure to reverse normal osmotic flow, thus in reverse osmosis water flows from a more concentrated solution across semipermeable membrane to a less concentrated solution (see figure 2).

  • Polimer (misal Polisulfon, Poliacrilonitril) dan keramik (Zirconium oxide, Aluminium oxide)

  • Untuk memperoleh struktur membran dgn karakteristik tertentu selain bahan baku tadi juga diperlukan campuran pelarut dan aditif


  • Karakteristik membran ultrafiltrasi : nilai MWCO ( must first understand the concept of normal osmosis. Simply put, in normal osmosis, water flows from a less concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution (see figure 1). Reverse osmosis utilizes pressure to reverse normal osmotic flow, thus in reverse osmosis water flows from a more concentrated solution across semipermeable membrane to a less concentrated solution (see figure 2).Molecular Weight Cut Off)

  • MWCO batas toleransiberat molekul (BM) senyawa yang dapat dipisahkan oleh suatu membran

  • MWCO 10,000 membran dapat menahan (reject) sebanyak 95% komponen-komponen dengan BM ≥ 10,000, sedangkan komponen-komponen dengan BM lebih rendah akan melewati membran



Contoh percobaan separasi membran
CONTOH PERCOBAAN SEPARASI MEMBRAN Produk Pangan

Tujuan percobaan :

  • Melakukan pembuatan membran ultrafiltrasi dari polimer polisulfon

  • Melakukan annealing untuk menghasilkan membran dengan karakteristik tertentu

  • Melakukan pengujian kinerja membran yang diperoleh untuk memisahkan senyawa dekstran (Dx) (BM = 71400) dan polietilen glikol (PEG) (BM= 20000), dan

  • Melakukan studi literatur apliaksi membran yang dihasilkan pada pengolahan pangan


Bahan dan alat
BAHAN DAN ALAT Produk Pangan

Bahan : polimer polisulfon (PS), pelarut dimetyhl-acetamide (DMAC), aditif nourmal methyl pirolidon (NMP), dekstran (BM=71.400) dan polietilen glikol (BM= 20000)

Alat : alat separasi membran, alat casting, water bath, HPLC waters dan detektor refraktometer


Metodologi percobaan
METODOLOGI PERCOBAAN Produk Pangan

  • Pembuatan membran (Gambar 4)

  • Pengujian karakteristik membran

    • proses annealing

    • proses separasi membran

  • Pengujian selektifitas membran

    • mengamati prosentase rejeksi komponen dekstran dan polietilen glikol


Polimer Produk Pangan

Pelarut

Aditif

Pencampuran

Pendiaman/relaxing

Casting

Gambar 4. Diagram Alir proses pembuatan membran

Penguapan

Koagulasi

Membran sheet


Prosentase rejeksi dihitung dengan rumus : Produk Pangan

Rejeksi (%) = [ 1-Cp/Cf ] x 100 %

Dimana :

Cp = konsentrasi solute pada permeate

Cf = konsentrasi pada feed

  • Penentuan konsentrasi solute pada feed dan permeate dilakukan dengan metode HPLC menggunakan eluen aquadest, dgn flow rate 0.8 ml/menit dan volume injeksi 200 ml


Gambar alat separasi membran skala laboratorium
Gambar Alat separasi membran skala laboratorium Produk Pangan

  • Keterangan :

  • Beaker geals pyrex

  • Tutup bagian atas

  • Tutup bagian bawah

  • Tutup pengatur tekanan

  • Aliran tekanan

  • Saluran bahan

  • Pengaduk magnetis

  • M. Modul membran ultrafiltrasi

  • Saluran pengeluaran

  • Disk Polietilen penyangga membran

  • S. Pemanas/hotplate


Hasil dan pembahasan
HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN Produk Pangan

  • Membran dari polisulfon, pelarut dimetil acetamide (DMAc) dan aditif normal methyl pirolidon (NMP) dengan rasio 22: 62,4:15,6 hanya cocok untuk memisahkan dekstran dan senyawa lain dengan BM > 71400.

  • Dengan menghitung waktu annealing saat persen 95% didapatkan MWCO membran polisulfon 71400 dan waktu annealing sebesar 6 menit.


  • Annealing Produk Pangan akan memperbesar daya rejection

  • Peningkatan daya rejection diduga akibat perendaman dalam air hangat selama proses annealing sehingga pori-pori membran lebih teratur dalam jarak dan ukurannya


Hasil analisis HPLC karakteristik membran campuran polisulfon, DMAc, dan NMP pada perbadingan 22 : 62,4 : 15,6


Gambar 5. Hubungan antara waktu annealing dan % rejection membran polisulfon terhadap dekstran (BM = 71400)


Aplikasi membran pada pengolahan pangan
APLIKASI MEMBRAN PADA PENGOLAHAN PANGAN membran polisulfon terhadap dekstran (BM = 71400)

Kelebihan metoda separasi membran :

  • Mampu memisahkan secara sempurna suatu campuran yang terdiri dari komponen-komponen dengan berat molekul yang berbeda-beda

  • Untuk memisahkan komponen bernilai ekonomis tinggi

    Kelemahan :

  • Memerlukan biaya yang relatif tinggi dibandingkan dengan cara ekstrasi ataupun distilasi konvensional


  • Salah satu contoh komponen dgn nilai ekonomis tinggi adalah ENZIM

  • Enzim : komponen protein (makromolekul) dgn BM besar (104 – 109)

  • Proses imobilisasi menggunakan membran untuk enzim dg BM > 71400

  • Proses imobilisasi secara fisik berarti membran akan bersifat tidak permeable bagi enzim sehinga enzim dapat didaur ulang maupun dipalikasikan untuk proses produksi secara kontinu (Gambar 6.)


Substrat ENZIM

Produk

Enzim

Substrat + enzim

Produk

Membran

Gambar 6. Prinsip separasi membran untuk imobilisasi enzim



Karakteristik membran untuk imobilisasi enzim tergantung pada
Karakteristik membran untuk imobilisasi enzim tergantung pada :

  • Jenis enzim yang akan diimobilisasi

  • Jenis substrat yang diharapkan akan tertahan (retentate) pada membran

  • Produk yang diharapkan melewati (permeate) membran


Hasil percobaan
HASIL PERCOBAAN pada :

  • Enzim yang akan diimobilisasi dan retentate substrat memiliki berat molekul lebih dari 71400, dan

  • Produk hasil reaksi enzimatis (permeate) memiliki berat molekul lebih kecil dari 71400


TERIMA KASIH pada :


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