Antibiotic Resistance & prevention. Content. History of Antibiotic resistance The consequences of Antibiotic resistance Reasons for Antibiotic resistance Prevention. The start of antibiotic resistance: Penicillin. Florey & Chain 1940. Fleming 1928. History of resistance.
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“There are two major effects of an antibiotic: therapeutically, it treats the invading infectious organism, but it also eliminates other, or non-disease producing, bacteria in its wake. The latter do, in fact, contribute to the diversity of the ecosystem and the natural balance between susceptible and resistant strains.…
“The consequence of antibiotic use is, therefore, the disruption of the natural microbial ecology. This alteration may be revealed in the emergence of types of bacteria which are very different from those previously found there, or drug resistant variants of the same ones that were already present.”
"... the mounting use of antibiotics, not only in people, but also in animals and in agriculture, has delivered a selection unprecedented in the history of evolution." Levy, 1997
Curable diseases – from sore throats and ear infections to TB and malaria --are in danger of becoming incurable
A new report warns that increasing drug resistance could rob the world of its opportunity to cure illnesses and stop epidemics.
Lack of effectiveness in vivo may not be due to bacterial resistance; the antibiotic may
Muscato JJ1991. An evaluation of the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative organisms isolated in cancer centres with aminoglycoside usage. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 27 Suppl C:1-7.
50 million tons antibiotics per year
‘Superbugs’ resistant to most antibiotics
2.5 million deaths
Project ICARE (Intensive Care Antibiotic Resistance Epidemiology) by CDC and Emory U SPH to collect data on 8 US hospitals:
For 8/10 pathogens considered, resistance was higher among in hospital isolates
2-Monitor and evaluate empiric, therapeutic & prophylactic use
3-Restriction of Drugs classified as:
4- Antimicrobial form
5- Laboratory reporting
6- Concurrent control