M2: HK Today Socio-political participation Form 4 LS 2012-2013
Socio-political participation • Definition: • Social participation: involvement of members of society in all aspects of affairs (including economic, environmental, political and cultural) of their society. • Political participation: aimed at affecting public affairs or decision-making • 3 major forms (Book 2 , p. 10-11) • On one’s own accord (i.e. individual cases like Ah Bun’s request for euthanasia) • Collective action (e.g. marches, signature campaigns and Internet communities) • Giving support (e.g. voting)
「喺咁艱難情況下，喺中國土地上做到公投，有超過50萬人投票，算係一個幾好嘅數字，政府必須回應。」她形容昨日是03年50萬人7.1遊行以來，最大規模的一次民主動員。「喺咁艱難情況下，喺中國土地上做到公投，有超過50萬人投票，算係一個幾好嘅數字，政府必須回應。」她形容昨日是03年50萬人7.1遊行以來，最大規模的一次民主動員。 蘋果日報 2010-05-17
Civil participation Scopeof participation Voluntary Individual VS Collective Politics Traditional VS Cyber Economics Culture Policy Making Management Society Execution Declaration Community Observation Country/ Society District Region Level of participation Neigbhourhood Extent of participation 莫基泰。《公民參與：社會政策的基石》。香港：中華書局，1995，頁4至8。
Activity 2 Compare 2003 July 1 mass demonstration, 2010 by-election, 2009 Choi Yuen Village Demolition • 2003 年大事回顧 Part 3 (2:35- 9:05) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rf1eIKV2vYY • 2010年香港大事回顧 3/4 (2:17-3:48) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kee9PiNGlNk 菜園之歌 -- 菜園村千人合唱 Song of Choi yuen village • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYZ7LDRzFrs
2009 July 1 March What are their appeal? What are the concerns of Hong Kong People? 七一上街去 @ 鏗鏘集2009-07-06 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cViucd-LLoE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tn9TYBY9CrA
What is civil society? • It refers to the sphere of society that lies between the government and the marketplace. State - exercise governmental authority Civil Society Market • non-governmental • non-profit - profits go to individuals
In the 2000 Policy Address, the Chief Executive pledged to work with voluntary associations in Hong Kong to develop a vibrant “third sector”, which “can often find solutions to social problems that appear intractable (disobedient) to both the market and the Government.”
Government responses:1. Institutionalized responses • Law/rule making • Resources allocation planned in budget • Public consultation • Advisory and statutory bodies
「環珠」諮詢太短 恐埋管治炸彈 • 真是難以相信，「環珠江口宜居灣區建設重點行動計劃」（下稱「環珠」）的公眾諮詢已經結束了。這份計劃由粵港澳3地政府聯合規劃，涉及約1.55萬平方公 里的土地山河、2,500萬人的生活；而且很可能被寫入「十二五」國家規劃。但扣除假期和周末，9年規劃的實際官方諮詢期只有18個工作天 香港經濟日報，2011年02月11日
Activity 3 (2) According to Source 2, why do civil society organizations in Hong Kong usually use an unconventional way (e.g. protest, strike, judicial review) to express their opinion? Suggest a way to improve the condition.
Public engagement • Open and inclusive policy making • Openness means providing citizens with information and making the policy process accessible and responsive. • Inclusion means including as wide a variety of citizens’ voices in the policy making process as possible.
Government responses:2. non-Institutionalized responses • Meeting with relevant interest groups • Having dialogues with the public through mass media 2/2011, 总理温家宝接受中国政府网、新华网联合专访，与广大网友在线交流。
After XRL conflict…Facebook!? 運輸及房屋局昨首次設立網上討論，同時讓網民在 facebook 內發表意見，卻是一場政治騷。市民只能一邊聽局長鄭汝樺與學者討論，另一邊在當局的 facebook留言，但卻得不到回應，激起大批網民不滿，二千多條留言中，批評的佔大多數，不少網民批評當局「真獨裁，假諮詢」、「唔知個醜字點寫」、 「做騷浪費時間」、「根本是政府的一場鬧劇」。 蘋果日報 2010-02-07
Effective communication between state and civil society helps… • Decision on priorities in resource allocation • Effectiveness and efficiency of policy implementation • Legitimacy of government
Questions to Ponder • What are the factors affect socio-political participations? (Hint: political, social, cultural aspects)
Political • In general, Hong Kong’s political culture is rational, mild and practical. • People usually participate in socio-political affairs through peaceful and rational means. • But nowadays, it gradually changed to a more radical, proactive means.
Social • Ethnicity: mostly Chinese • Gender: Both men and women in HK have equal opportunities. (yet, the Legco and district councils are still dominated by male councilors) • Age: elderly, middle-aged, young people (post-80s, post-90s) • Wealth / resources: rich people are influential • Social cohesion and sense of belonging • Educational level (knowledge) / curriculum (civic education) : in general, people with higher levels of education are more concerned about politics.
Mass Media • Flow of news and information flow (fast, free) • Credibility of mass media • Degree of freedom of the press and information / censorship • Level of involvement and the stance of the media on different events • Social media (youtube / blog / facebook)
As Hong Kong people seldom take any action attempting to change the current situation, some comment Hong Kong people as political apathetic. To what extent do you agree on it?