Genetic Probability

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# Genetic Probability - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Genetic Probability. Vanderveer Biology. Gateway. Teachers. Students. Teacher’s Lounge. Learning Goals: Students will have a basic understanding of genetic probability Students will be able to distinguish between a dominant and recessive gene

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### Genetic Probability

Vanderveer

Biology

Gateway

Teachers

Students

Teacher’s Lounge

Learning Goals:

• Students will have a basic understanding of genetic probability
• Students will be able to distinguish between a dominant and recessive gene
• Students will be able to distinguish between a genotype and phenotype
Teacher’s Lounge

Learning Objective:

• Students will be able to use knowledge gained in this activity to answer genetic probability questions with 75% accuracy
Students

Procedures:

• Participate in each practice activity
• Complete the assessment with 75% accuracy

Good day! My name is GregorMendel and I will be assisting you as you learn about genetic probability.

Home

Introduction

Monohybrid Cross

Let’s get started!

Dihybrid Cross

Multiplication Rule

Assessment

Introduction to Genetic Probability

On the following slides you will find basic genetic definitions you need to know, or already know:

Genetic Probability Definitions

Allele: a form of a gene

Dominant: will be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology; usually represented by an upper case letter

Recessive: will not be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology unless the individual has 2 copies of the recessive allele; usually represented by a lower case letter

Genetic Probability Definitions Continued

Genotype: the genetic composition of an organism

Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism

Gregor Mendel Video

Oh, that’s me!

Section Review

What is an allele?

a. A chromosome

b. A letter

c. A form of a gene

Genetic Probability Definitions

Allele: a form of a gene

Dominant: will be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology; usually represented by an upper case letter

Recessive: will not be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology unless the individual has 2 copies of the recessive allele; usually represented by a lower case letter

Genotype: the genetic composition of an organism

Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism

Back to review question 1

You’re right! 

Next question

Super!

Not quite …

Try again!

You can do it!

a. Dominant

b. Recessive

c. An allele

Genetic Probability Definitions

Allele: a form of a gene

Dominant: will be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology; usually represented by an upper case letter

Recessive: will not be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology unless the individual has 2 copies of the recessive allele; usually represented by a lower case letter

Genotype: the genetic composition of an organism

Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism

Back to review question 2

You’re right! 

Next question

Wonderful!

Not quite …

Try again!

It’s okay, try again!

3. The genetic composition of an organism is its ____________ and the observable characteristics of an organism is its ____________.

a. Phenotype; genotype

b. Genotype; phenotype

c. Genotype; genotype

Genetic Probability Definitions

Allele: a form of a gene

Dominant: will be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology; usually represented by an upper case letter

Recessive: will not be expressed in the organisms appearance or physiology unless the individual has 2 copies of the recessive allele; usually represented by a lower case letter

Genotype: the genetic composition of an organism

Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism

Back to review question 3

You’re right! 

Up Next:

Monohybrid Cross

Not quite …

Try again!

Think!

Monohybrid Cross

A monohybrid cross is a cross involving a single trait with two alleles.

In example, X is the trait and X, x are the alleles.

Monohybrid Cross Using a Punnett Square

Seed color: Y=yellow

y= green

Cross: Yy x YY

Step 1:

What is the genotypic ratio? 2 YY: 2 Yy or 1 YY: 1Yy

What is the phenotypic ratio? All yellow

Monohybrid Cross Using a Punnett Square: Practice

Eye color: B=brown

b= blue

Cross: Bb x Bb

Step 1:

What is the genotypic ratio? 1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bb

What is the phenotypic ratio? 3 brown: 1 blue

Dihybrid cross

A dihybrid cross is a cross involving 2 traits with two alleles each.

In example, X and Y are the traits and X, x/ Y, y are the alleles.

Dihybrid Cross Using a Punnett Square

Seed color: Y=yellow

y= green

W= Wrinkled

w=round

Cross: YyWw x Yyww

Step 1:

What is the genotypic ratio?

2 YYWw: 2 YYww: 4 YyWw: 4 Yyww: 2 yyWw: 2 yyww

reduced to 1 YYWw: 1 YYww: 2 YyWw: 2 Yyww: 1 yyWw: 1 yyww

What is the phenotypic ratio?

6 Yellow wrinkled: 6 Yellow round: 2 green wrinkled: 2 green round

Reduced to 3 yellow wrinkled: 3 yellow round: 1 green wrinkled: 1 green round

Dihybrid Cross Using a Punnett Square: Practice

Seed color: B=Brown

b= blue

G= brunette

g= blonde

Cross: BBGg x bbgg

Step 1:

What is the genotypic ratio?

What is the phenotypic ratio?

What is the genotypic ratio?

8 BbGg: 8 Bbgg

Reduced to 1 BbGg: 1 Bbgg

What is the phenotypic ratio?

8 Brown/brown: 8 Brown/ blonde

Reduced to 1 Brown/brown: 1 Brown/blonde

Multiplication Rule

If two events are independent, then the joint probability is:

P(A and B)= P(A) x P(B)

Dihybrid Cross using Multiplication Rule

Seed color: Y=yellow

y= green

W= Wrinkled

w=round

Cross: YyWw x YyWw

What is the probability of getting the genotype YyWw?

(2/4) (2/4)= 4/16= ¼

What is the probability of getting the genotype YYww?

(1/4)(1/4)= 1/16

Dihybrid Cross using Multiplication Rule: Practice

Seed color: B=Brown

b= blue

G= brunette

g= blonde

Cross: bbGg x bbGG

What is the probability of getting the genotype bbGg?

What is the probability of getting the genotype bbGG?

What is the probability of getting the genotype bbGg?

(1)(1/2)= ½

What is the probability of getting the genotype bbGG?

(1)(1/2)= ½

Assessment

You must answer ¾ of the following questions correctly to complete this activity.

This will be a piece of cake now that we’ve completed the activities!

Question 1

An allele is:

a. A form of a gene

b. Gregor Mendel’s nickname

c. A chromosome

You’re right! 

Next Question

Perfect!

Not quite …

Try Again!

You can do it!

Question 2

Solve using a Punnett Square. What is the phenotypic ratio of the following cross?

Bb x BB

a. 1:1

b. 2:2

c. All are the same

You’re right! 

Next Question

Here, here!

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Try Again!

Ponder this one some more

Question 3

Solve using a Punnett Square. What is the genotypic ratio of this cross?

YyWw x YyWw

a. 1:1:2:2:1:1

b. 9:3:3:1

c. 12:3:1

You’re right! 

Next Question

Good work!

Not quite …

Try Again!

You’ve got this!

Question 4

Solve using the Multiplication Rule. What is the genotypic ratio of the following cross?

Yyww x yyww

a. 1:1

b. 2:2

c. 9:3:3:1

You’re right! 

Final Slide

Good job!

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Try Again!

Think!

Almost there ...
• If you have …
• Followed each instructional activity
• Participated in each practice activity
• Completed the assessment with 75% accuracy
• Then you’re done!

Congratulations!