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Embedded Systems & Controls. Carving Out a Niche as a Mac SE Grad. Kevin Dagenais November 15 2007. Your Presenter. McMaster SE 2003 McMaster MASc 2005 Supervised by M.V.M Theses: Alternate Fuel Injection Control ZENON Environmental/GE Water and Process Hy-Drive Technologies Ltd.

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embedded systems controls

Embedded Systems & Controls

Carving Out a Niche as a Mac SE Grad

Kevin Dagenais November 15 2007

your presenter
Your Presenter
  • McMaster SE 2003
  • McMaster MASc 2005
    • Supervised by M.V.M
    • Theses: Alternate Fuel Injection Control
  • ZENON Environmental/GE Water and Process
  • Hy-Drive Technologies Ltd.
    • Embedded Systems Designer
    • Software Team Leader
state machines and medical supplies
State Machines and Medical Supplies
  • We have a history
    • Intro to Professional Eng 2004-2005
    • I’m sorry if I tricked you into this!
  • 3 Years later… Your Feedback… Please!
relevant projects
Relevant Projects
  • Design of a Configurable Alternate Fuel Injection Controller
  • Embedded Controls Development for A Hydrogen Generating System
  • Design of gas flow regulation control system. (Just Underway)
  • Telematics Integration, customized reporting.
a green alternative
A Green Alternative
  • Natural Gas and Propane both burn cleaner than Petroleum.
  • These fuels are usually more economical.
  • Because they are Gaseous, injection pulses are longer.
  • A viable solution for localized fleet operators (Taxi companies, Driving Schools).
injection control
Injection Control
  • Fuel Injector Control
  • Platform: PIC 18F452
  • Hard Real Time Constraints
main loop
Main Loop
  • Evaluation of Safety and Diagnostic Conditions.
  • Analogue Conversions
  • State variable updates
  • Determine Cause of Interrupt
  • Disable Interrupts and clear flags
  • Handle event
    • Change on Injection Signals (Ext I/O)
    • Pulse Elongation complete (Timer Period Match)
    • Unhandled Exception (Timer Overflow)
Hydrogen Based Diesel Enrichment via Electrolysis.
  • Improved Fuel Economy
  • Reduced Exhaust Emissions
  • Improved Horse Power
a software box that makes hydrogen
A Software Box(That makes Hydrogen)
  • 2 Channel Safety with Monitoring
  • PID Pressure control
  • PWM Heater control
  • Telematics Integration
  • Co-operative Multitasking
  • OTAC
  • Periodic and Failure based reporting
  • Deployed Study performance
  • GPS Integtration
what is out of your control that affects timing
What is out of your control that Affects Timing?
  • Characteristics of the related physical process
  • Hard Real Time Constraints
  • Frequency of Oscillation, Instruction Set, Pipeline Length
  • Available On Chip Peripherals
    • Interrupt handler speed, available interrupts, max # of vectors
    • Timer speed, size, scaling, number, interaction
  • Sensing response time,
    • TAQ, TAC, Sensing Mechanism
  • External communication interfaces
    • Including on-board peripherals
  • Total processor workload
  • The Rest is up to you!!.... (Is there anything left??)
the stuff that s left
The Stuff that’s Left
  • System/State Design
  • Use of Interrupts
  • Extent of branching and conditionals in key processes
  • Extent of context switching
  • Use of Assembly code
  • Task prioritization and scheduling
  • On-Chip peripheral configuration settings
  • Speed vs. Size
  • Task Offloading
verifying time properties
Verifying Time Properties
  • Design for Inspection, Inspect to Verify!
  • Limit the scope of inspection using interrupts and appropriate priority assignment.
  • Let the compiler documentation do the talking…
  • Lose the printf’s, and all other debugging constructs.
  • Scope it!
when your fastest isn t fast enough salvation through hardware
When Your Fastest Isn’t Fast EnoughSalvation Through Hardware
  • Turn Analogues Inputs to Digitals
  • Move Services off Chip to Dedicated Devices (Flexibility is about choice)
  • Look for opportunities to trade size for speed.
i never thought
I Never Thought…

Anyone would read my thesis.

My Thesis includes complete code (PIC 18F452-C) including:

  • Full Documentation
  • Examples of A/D conversion
  • Interrupt Handling
  • Serial Communication
  • Hard Real time control

It is available in the departmental office, and in the library.

closing thoughts
Closing Thoughts
  • Write the PPE Early, but not in Summer.
  • Make good friends with your Hardware Guy/Gal.
  • The Man Month isn’t mythical when you work on Salary.
  • IntelliSense will only get you so far, and Nowhere in embedded.