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CHAPTER 4…. Twentieth-Century Pioneers in Classroom Discipline. By Carl Peahota Education 531 Holy Family University Dr. Patricia Williams. Prior to the middle of the 20th century, classroom discipline was:. Forceful. Demanding. Often Harsh. Punitive.

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slide1

CHAPTER 4…

Twentieth-Century Pioneers in Classroom Discipline

By Carl Peahota

Education 531

Holy Family University

Dr. Patricia Williams

prior to the middle of the 20th century classroom discipline was
Prior to the middle of the 20th century, classroom discipline was:
  • Forceful
  • Demanding
  • Often Harsh
  • Punitive

Let’s watch the following video involving some “old-school” tactics…

that was then
That was then…

Today, different philosophies and tactics are used that:

this is NOW!

  • Entice
  • Persuade
  • Assist

Let’s meet some of the pioneers who made this possible

slide5

Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg

Principal Teachings

Group Dynamics -

The forces generated by and within groups that affect behavior.

  • Students in classrooms are likely to do things they would not do alone, and unlikely to do things they would do if by themselves or in small groups.
  • For teachers to deal effectively with group behavior, they must understand:
  • group dynamics
  • how those dynamics develop
  • how those dynamics affect students in the classroom
slide6

Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg

Principal Teachings

Group Dynamics (con’t)

  • In any class, students take on student roles.
  • leaders, followers, class clown, instigator, and scapegoat
  • teachers must be watchful of these roles; encourage/discourage as appropriate.
  • Students expect teachers to take on certain teacher roles. They are expected to serve as:
  • role models
  • a source of knowledge
  • referee/judge
  • surrogate parent
slide7

Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg

Principal Teachings

Group Dynamics (con’t)

  • Promote positive influence techniques instead of punishment. These include:
  • supporting student self-control
  • offer situational assistance
  • appraise reality (help students become aware of underlying causes of proper/improper behavior)
  • I f punishment has to be used…
  • it SHOULD NOT be physically hurtful
  • it should consist of preplanned consequences
  • it SHOULD NOT involve angry outbursts from the teacher.
slide8

Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg

Review of Contributions

  • Redl and Wattenberg made 5 notable contributions
  • described how groups behave differently from individuals, helping the teacher better understand classroom behavior.
  • provided the first systematic approach to improving student behavior using more humane techniques that promote long-term positive relationships.
  • placed emphasis on understanding causes of student misbehavior; attending to those cause could eliminate most misbehaviors.
  • involving students in making decisions about discipline
  • pointed out detrimental effects of punishment…showed why it SHOULD NOT be used.
slide9

B. F. Skinner

Principal Teachings

Hey! I never called it that! I used the term “shaping behavior”.

Behavior Modification -

Shaping behavior intentionally through systematic reinforcement.

  • Skinner said that using a reinforcing stimulus can shape behavior and must be received soon after the behavior occurs, if it’s to have an effect.
  • Constant reinforcement – given every time a student behaves as desired.
  • Intermittent reinforcement – given occasionally; maintains desired behavior once that behavior has been established.
  • Skinner stressed that punishment should not be used in behavior shaping…results are too unpredictable
slide10

B. F. Skinner

Review of Contributions

  • Although Skinner did not concern himself with classroom discipline, his discoveries concerning the shaping of behavior led to “Behavior Modification”
  • Today, teachers teaching in the primary grades and beyond have found that behavior modification can not be used as an overall discipline approach. Why?
  • It did not teach children what NOT to do in class.
  • Teachers found that misbehavior was often sustained by social rewards from peers
slide11

Jacob Kounin

Principal Teachings

Withitness -

Teacher awareness in all parts of the classroom at all times.

  • Kounin said that those teachers who displayed “withitness” were most effective
  • The ability to attend to 2 or more classroom events simultaneously overlapping was one of the most valuable capabilities a teacher can possess, according to Kounin.
  • Kounin believed in capturing the classes attention before beginning a lesson. One particular tactic, called group alerting, was used to gain the student’s full attention.
  • Kounin believed in keeping students alert and involved. By calling on students to respond, demonstrate, or explain, Kounin believed that good lesson momentum was key in making students accountable for their own learning.
  • An emphasis on smoothness in presenting a lesson was crucial. The lesson should progress steadily without abrupt changes.
  • Beware of over-exposure to a given topic, which he called satiation. This could lead to misbehavior and disengagement from the lesson.
slide12

Jacob Kounin

Review of Contributions

  • Kounin said that those teachers who displayed “withitness” were most effective
  • The ability to attend to 2 or more classroom events simultaneously overlapping was one of the most valuable capabilities a teacher can possess, according to Kounin.
  • Kounin believed in capturing the classes attention before beginning a lesson. One particular tactic, called group alerting, was used to gain the student’s full attention.
  • Kounin believed in keeping students alert and involved. By calling on students to respond, demonstrate, or explain, Kounin believed that good lesson momentum was key in making students accountable for their own learning.
  • An emphasis on smoothness in presenting a lesson was crucial. The lesson should progress steadily without abrupt changes.
  • Beware of over-exposure to a given topic, which he called satiation. This could lead to misbehavior and disengagement from the lesson.
slide13

Haim Ginott

Principal Teachings

The Role of Communication in Discipline

  • Ginnot suggested that teachers must not prejudge students or hold grudges
  • Communication is the key to working effectively with students; treating them as individuals regardless the size of the class.
  • Teachers should use a style of communication called congruent communication. This style is harmonious with student’s feelings about situations and themselves.
  • This style of communication addresses situations, not students’ character or personality.
  • Teachers confer dignity on their students by treating them as social equals.
  • Effective teachers invite cooperation from students by describing the situation and indicating what needs to be done. These teachers ask themselves, “How can I be most helpful to my students right now?”
slide14

Haim Ginott

Principal Teachings

The Role of Communication in Discipline (con’t)

  • When expressing anger, Ginnot suggested that teachers should use I-messages (“I am upset”) as opposed to you-messgaes (“You are being rude”) and to the I-messages short and to the point. Why does Ginott suggest this? What are the advantages?
  • Evaluative praise should never be used because it evaluates the students character. Appreciative praise is far better because it shows appreciation for what the student has done.
  • Ginott felt that teachers should not pry into students personal lives and avoid asking why questions since those types of questions may make the student feel guilty and defensive.
  • Regarding sarcasm and punishment, Ginott said that both tactics will not make the student’s situations improve.
  • Teachers should strive for their own self-discipline. Don’t “do as I say, not as I do”.
  • Classroom discipline is attained gradually through self-discipline and helpfulness.
slide15

Haim Ginott

Review of Contributions

  • Haim Ginott contributions include:
  • how teachers should communicate with students
  • the importance of the teacher being self-controlled
  • Ginott is quick to warn educators that:
  • his suggestions would not produce instantaneous results
  • guidance through communication would become more effective if done repeatedly over time.
  • Ginott felt that teachers should not pry into students personal lives and avoid asking why questions since those types of questions may make the student feel guilty and defensive.
  • Ginott did not address how to necessarily put a quick stop to offensive or disruptive behavior. His suggestions were more focused on maintaining good relations with students.
slide16

Rudolf Dreikurs

Principal Teachings

Democratic Teaching -

Classroom where students and teachers work together in making decisions.

  • Self-controlled students are able to :
  • show initiative
  • make reasonable decisions
  • assume responsibility in ways that benefit themselves and others
  • Good discipline can not occur in autocratic or permissive classrooms
  • autocratic – teach makes all decisions; no opportunity for student initiative and responsibility.
  • permissive – teach fails to make students comply with rules; students not accountable for their misbehaviors.
  • Student have a sense of belonging (genuine goal). This can be achieved when the teacher and other students include that student in activities, don’t mistreat the student, and show the student respect. When this sense of belonging is missing, the student often turns to mistaken goals (attention-seeking, power seeking, revenge seeking, and inadequacy)
slide17

Rudolf Dreikurs

Principal Teachings

Democratic Teaching (con’t)

  • Teachers should be able to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. They should:
  • identify the mistaken goal
  • discuss the faulty logic involved
  • do so in a friendly, no threatening manner
  • Rules for the classroom should be formulated by teacher AND students, followed up with logical consequences (pleasant consequences for good behavior; unpleasant consequences for misbehavior)
  • Punishment should NEVER be used.
slide18

Rudolf Dreikurs

Review of Contributions

  • Dreikurs was the first to base his discipline scheme on the premise of social interest, where the student sees that their personal well-being is associated with the good of the group.
  • He was among the first to clarify how democratic teachers/classrooms promote sound discipline.
  • He said that a student’s desire “to belong” was a key motivator of student behavior, and he identified “mistaken goals of attention” that students could fall into if they feel they are not achieving or belonging.
  • He urged students and teachers to jointly formulate rules of classroom discipline.
  • Teachers should not punish or use praise, but instead use encouragement (avoiding student depending on teacher reactions)
  • Although teachers liked Dreikurs ideas, they found them difficult to implement, they did not easily see the interconnections among his ideas, and his ideas did not address how to immediately stop student disruptions, aggressions, and defiance.
slide19

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline -

Taking charge by interacting with students in a calm, insistent, and consistent manner.

  • The Canter’s emphasized :
  • students rights include learning in a calm, orderly classroom
  • teachers rights include teaching without interruption
  • school administrators and students’ parents are expected to support what the Canter’s advocate
  • For students to behave accordingly, the students’ and teachers’ needs were met and behavior was managed assertively but humanely.
  • If students complied with a set of clearly established rules,, teachers could apply positive consequences (recognition or praise). Non-compliance would result in teachers applying negative consequences that were so distasteful that students would choose to comply with the rules.
  • Teachers that implemented a “take-charge” attitude toward assertive discipline allowed nothing to violate the students’ best interest.
slide20

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline (con’t)

  • Central to Assertive Discipline was the 3 types of contrasting teachers:
  • Hostile Teachers
  • viewed students as adversaries
  • kept the upper hand to maintain order
  • accept no nonsense
  • used commands and stern facial expressions
  • Nonassertive Teachers
  • overly passive
  • failed to help class formulate reasonable expectations of student
  • come across as wishy-washy (allow certain behaviors one day, but not the next)
slide21

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline (con’t)

  • Central to Assertive Discipline was the 3 types of contrasting teachers (con’t):
  • Assertive Teachers
  • clearly, confidently, and consistently model/express class expectations
  • implement a discipline plan encouraging student cooperation
  • help students understand which behaviors promote success and lead to failure
  • balance between the need for limiting behavior and the need for warmth/encouragement
  • Effects of these styles on teachers and students:
  • Hostile Response
  • the pleasure that teachers and students may enjoy has been taken away
  • produces a negative attitude in students towards the teacher
slide22

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline (con’t)

  • Effects of these styles on teachers and students (con’t)
  • Nonassertive Response
  • students feel insecure and frustrated
  • the teachers needs are not met; produces stress
  • teachers become hostile toward chronically misbehaving students
  • students feel manipulated and lose respect for teacher.
  • Assertive Response
  • classroom atmosphere condusive to both teacher and student
  • teacher invites student collaboration; help student practice acceptable behavior
  • student learns he/she can count on their teacher for clear, consistent expectations
slide23

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline (con’t)

  • The Canter’s suggest writing a discipline plan that clarify:
  • Rules – state EXACTLY how to behave
  • Positive Recognition – give sincere personal attention to students who behave according to class expectations, and use it frequently
  • Corrective Actions – actions that are applied to students who interfere with other students’ right to learn.
  • these actions are not to be harmful to the student (psychologically or physically).
  • these actions are used to remind the student that they have chosen a consequence commensurate with their behavior.
slide24

Lee and Marlene Canter

Principal Teachings

Assertive Discipline (con’t)

  • The Canter’s suggest writing a discipline plan that clarify (con’t)
  • Corrective Actions (con’t)
  • these actions should be dealt with quickly and calmly, according to a discipline hierarchy.
  • in this hierarchy, the student begins afresh. Each day thereafter that the student disrupts the class, the consequence of that disruption increases.
  • in cases of severe disruption, it is suggested to invoke a severe clause in which the student is sent to the principal on the first offence.
  • for such a system to work, teachers must, somehow, keep track of the offenses. Teachers must also teach the plan to the students, it’s not enough to read it aloud.
slide25

Lee and Marlene Canter

Review of Contributions

  • The Canter’s contributions have drawn popularity by invoking a partnership between student and teacher in planning a concept of “rights” within the classroom.
  • They explain that students need and want limits, and they want teachers to enforce them in a manner that is respectable yet assertive
  • Canters were the first to insist that teachers have a right to backing from administrators and cooperation from parents in helping students behave acceptably.
  • Over the years, the Canters have modified their approach as to maintain the integrity of their suggestions as social realities change.