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Bio slurry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bio slurry
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  1. Bio slurry PPRE Oldenburg University April 26-28, 2011

  2. Soil fertility • Cultivation: • Crop rotation • Slash & burn • Fallowing • Population pressure! • Mineral matter: • Clay: < 0.002 mm • Silt: 0.002 – 2mm • Stone: > 2mm • Soil air: • Air / water critical • Respiration: roots & micro organisms • Biological population: • Worms,insects,spiders • Fungi, bacteria, algae • 20% SOM • Physical & decomp • Climate: • Temp: chemical reaction for weathering • Rainfall: washing out weathering products • Organic matter: • Decomposing organisms • Humus, back (C) jelly, in mineral matrix • Soil water: • Held by clay & humus • Transport nutrients • Micro-organism activity • Mineral weathering • Larger organisms: • Vegetation, animals • Tropical soils: low C-content

  3. Nutrient depletion in Africa • Water & wind erosion = 16 - 300 x soil development through weathering • Nutrient export by product export

  4. Plant growth • Nutrient levels: • Deficient: Severely limited growth and yield • Critical: Growth and yield below average, good response on added nutrients • Sufficient: Added nutrients result in added nutrient in produce rather then increased yields • Excessive: Reducing yields, causing nutrient imbalances, toxic

  5. Plant nutrients Macronutrients (0.2 - 4% DW) • Primary: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) • Secondary: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) • Silicon (Si) Micronutrients (trace elements, 5 – 200 ppm) • boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) Non-Mineral Nutrients • hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C)

  6. Macro nutrients

  7. Soil Organic Matter Small fraction of soils: < 2 % (in tropics) OM: • Living organisms: roots, fungi, earthworms, etc. • Dead material: plant residues, fym, compost, humus, etc Positive effects: • Soil structure (roots, air) • Water retention capacity • Soil fertility (CEC = cation exchange capacity) • Buffers soil pH • Resistance to erosion

  8. Fertilizers Organic fertilizer: • Broad range of nutrients • Low in N-P-K • Long term effect (indirect) • High soil organic matter content Chemical fertilizers: • Short term effect (direct) • High in N, P or K Integrated Soil Fertility Management: • Optimal combination of organic and chemical fertilizers

  9. Sustainable agriculture Ecologically sound, economically feasible, socially acceptable

  10. Biogas Production Liquefaction Acid Production End Products Liquefying Bacteria Acid-Forming Bacteria Methane-Forming Bacteria Biogas (Methane, CO2, misc.) Liquefied soluble organic compounds Simple organic acids Effluent Insoluble Compounds(organic, inorganic, water) Manure Anaerobic Digestion Process

  11. Bio-slurry characteristics An example of Nutrient contents of slurry at different situations/practices (Gurung, 1997)

  12. Factors affecting nutrient content • Species, age, and condition of the animal from which the dung is drawn • Nutrition - composition of diets • Environmental factors • The way the slurry is stored, treated and applied to the field

  13. Farm system Crop production system Bio slurry Biogas plant Household system Animal production system

  14. Economic benefits of slurry • Higher yield kg/ha • Better quality, higher price/kg • Savings chemical fertilizer • Savings on pesticides Financial benefits of bioslurry is far greater than that of biogas! (Vietnam, India, China)

  15. Effect of biogas slurry Dry and wet slurry on wheat Source: Maskey, 1978 in Gurung, 1997

  16. Slurry application methods • Slurry as a ready-made manure • Application of slurry with irrigation water • Slurry used as dried dust • Use after composting

  17. Other applications • Soil conditioning • Starter for composting • Enriched with organic fertilizer (urea, super phosphate) • Feed (fish culture, animal husbandry) • Pesticide application • Seed pelleting • Mushroom cultivation • Earthworm rearing

  18. Wet Storage

  19. Shading

  20. (semi) Dry Storage

  21. Slurry hut

  22. Wet application

  23. Wet application II

  24. Dry Application

  25. Challenges of Bio-slurry utilization • Storage has significant deterioration effect on the slurry quality • It is expensive and labor intensive to transport composted slurry, particularly, to fields far away from homesteads • Determining specific plant requirement and soil test is required • Determining optimum time and season for slurry application • Lack of knowledge and skill in the value and use of the slurry

  26. Thank you