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Presentation on Nepal Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment (GSEA) Getting Social Exclusion on the Policy Radar Screen Macro Social Analysis Conference May 16-19. Today’s Presentation on the Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment:.

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Presentation on

Nepal Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment (GSEA)

Getting Social Exclusion on the Policy Radar Screen

Macro Social Analysis Conference

May 16-19

today s presentation on the gender and social exclusion assessment
Today’s Presentation on the Gender and Social Exclusion Assessment:
  • Less on the “what” of the GSEA – which is summarized in handout.
  • More on the “how” – 9 elements of the GSEA policy process.
  • But first a few quick slides on the context.
corporate context of gsea process
Corporate Context of GSEA Process:
  • Collaborative effort between DFID and World Bank – corporate support for collaboration.
  • CAP and CAS developed in tandem – inclusion agenda embedded in both.
  • Strong commitment from WB Country Director who had already forged small but strong group of champions in government for home grown economic reform.
politicial context of gsea process
Politicial Context of GSEA Process:
  • Small Country – donor dependent.
  • Fledgling democracy – heavy overhang of feudal institutions.
  • Maoist insurgency – recruiting the excluded.
  • Political uncertainty as king uses insurgency as an excuse to take more and more power and sideline democracy.
current political context april 2006 people s movement
Current Political Context: April 2006 People’s Movement
  • More sophisticated understanding of “democracy”
  • Democracy now qualified as:
elements of the gsea policy process
Elements of the GSEA Policy Process
  • Framing the issue: “rules of the game”
  • Influencing the PRSP
  • Establishing the link between poverty & exclusion: “Data Stories”
  • What you measure is what you get: focus on M&E
  • Combining policy research and operations --Using a range of instruments
  • Building alliances
  • Understanding the “implementation gap”
  • Opportunism, flexibility and patience.
1 1 framing the issue
1.1 Framing the Issue
  • GSEA focuses on institutions as the “rules of the game”.
  • Caste, ethnic identity and gender presented as three interlocking social institutions that bias the rules against certain social groups and therefore need to be “reformed”.
  • Special focus on informal institutionswhich covers the cultural norms, behaviors and values usually left out of the analysis.
1 2 social exclusion as an outcome of the prevailing rules of the game
1.2 Social Exclusion as an outcome of the prevailing “rules of the game”.
  • Hindu caste system and concepts of ritual impurity used to justify low status of women, Dalits and IPs or Janajatis.
  • No integrated analysis of impact of Nepal’s institutional framework and its past public policy choices on excluded groups.
  • Almost no analysis of links between social exclusion and poverty.
2 influencing the prsp
2. Influencing the PRSP
  • Despite lack of good data, in late 2002, we put together a short 20 page background note on Social Exclusion for the National Planning Commission as we were just beginning the research.
  • Eurekha! NPC adopted the note and made Social Inclusion the 4th Pillar of the PRSP!
3 establishing the link between exclusion and poverty data stories
3.Establishing the link between exclusion and poverty: “Data Stories”
  • Based on re-analysis of Census, and other national level household surveys.
  • Also Primary Data collection and Analysis on exclusion – the “3rd dimension of poverty:
      • “Measuring Empowerment and Social Inclusion” Study
data story 3 1 caste ethnic disparities in poverty incidence
Data Story # 3.1:Caste/Ethnic Disparities in Poverty Incidence
  • Nepal Average: 31%
  • Hill Dalits: 48%
  • Tarai Dalits:46%
  • Hill Janajati: 43%
  • Muslim: 41%
  • The incidence of poverty among Dalits as a whole is nearly 50% higher than the Nepal average.
data story 3 2 the caste penalty
Data Story # 3.2: The “Caste Penalty”
  • Average per capita consumption for Brahman/Chhetri households is 46% higher than that of Dalit households.
  • Even when background variables are controlled, Brahman/Chhetri household per capita consumption is still 15% higher.
  • This unexplained difference (Rs. 4,853 less annual per capita income), we call the “caste penalty”.
data story 3 4 caste is more powerful than gender in determining empowerment inclusion levels
Data story # 3.4: Caste is more powerful than Gender in determining Empowerment/Inclusion levels
  • Regression analysis showed that Caste and Gender explain 33% of variation in Composite Empowerment & Inclusion Index
    • Gender explained 7%
    • Caste/ethnicity alone explained 26%
data story 3 5 the good news
Data Story # 3.5: The Good news
  • Caste and gender-based disparities at the local level can be reduced by development interventions that deliver:
    • Livelihood empowerment through access to education, income earning and asset accumulation opportunities
    • Mobilization empowerment through media exposure and membership in groups
for example
For example:

A Dalit who…

  • has three years of schooling (which raises the CEI by +5.7 %) and;
  • Is a member of a group (+5.9%)

…would have the same level of empowerment and inclusion as an uneducated Brahman, Chhetri or Newar who is not a member of a group.

4 1 m e what you measure is what you get
4.1 M&E: What you measure is what you get.

HMG/N Poverty Monitoring & Analysis System (PMAS) set up to monitor the PRSP:

  • We pushed for gender, caste and ethnic disaggregation – to measure progress on the PRSP inclusion pillar.
  • We introduced a simplified classification of 103 social groupings used in 2001 Census.
  • Now 10 major social groups used by Central Bureau of Statistics in all up-coming national surveys.
4.2 M&E: DFID uses GSEA framework to develop Livelihood and Social Inclusion (LSI) monitoring in all projects it supports.

Three domains of change:

  • Improving access to assets and services for the poor and excluded.
  • Increasing the voice and influence of the poor and excluded.
  • Supporting changes in the “rules of the game” that have always favored the elite.
5 the process of getting inclusion into the country program is more important than the esw product
5. The process of getting inclusion into the country program is more important than the ESW “product”.
  • The PRSC – affirmative action in civil service in policy matrix
  • The Country Assistance Strategies of the Bank, DFID and other donors such as ADB
  • SWAps in Health and Education
  • Projects in WB and DFID
  • Poverty Assessment
  • Development Policy Review
parallel policy research and operational work on exclusion over extended period
Parallel policy research and operational work on exclusion over extended period.
  • WB CAS :
  • Insturments in support
  • of Inclusion Pillar
  • PRSC– affirmative action
  • Community School Support
  • Project
  • Poverty Alleviation Fund
  • Education SWAp
  • Higher Education
  • Health SWAp
  • Development Policy
  • Review
  • Poverty Assessment
  • Country Dialogue
  • Instruments in
  • support of PRSP Inclusion
  • Pillar:
  • Rural Growth
    • LFP, all LSI monitoring
  • Basic Services
  • Health sector SWAp; Primary
  • Education SWAp; WATSAN
  • GoodGovernance
  • ESP, Affirmative Action
  • Social Inclusion
  • Social Exclusion Action
  • Programme (SEAP)
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework
  • Chapter 3: Socio-cultural and Historical Foundations of Exclusion in Nepal
  • Chapter 4: Macro Statistics
  • Chapter 5: Primary data from Rural Nepal
  • Chapter 6: An Overview of Public Discourse and Action on Discrimination
  • Chapter 7: Discriminatory Laws
  • Chapter 8: Gender Discrimination
  • Chapter 9: Caste Discrimination
  • Chapter 10: Ethnic Discrimination
  • Chapter 11: Access to Health Care
  • Chapter 12: Inclusive Education
  • Chapter 13: Group-based Approaches
  • Chapter 14: Affirmative Action
  • Chapter 15: What we have Learned and Priorities for Action
6 building alliances
6. Building Alliances
  • Responding to needs of technocrats/ reformers in government
  • Interaction with NGOs, academics, activists and stakeholder groups
  • Other donors
  • Internally in the World Bank and DFID
  • Importance of a credible team – not the “usual suspects”
7 understanding the implementation gap
7. Understanding the “Implementation Gap”
  • Not just “weak institutional capacity”
  • But also a form of elite resistance to changes in the rules of the game that would reduce their power and challenge their self-identity.
  • Requires long term commitment from development partners and taping the comparative advantage of different actors in the process.
8 opportunism flexibility and patience
8.Opportunism, flexibility and patience!
  • The ninja replaces the planner: “April Revolution” a great opportunity, but who can be sure of the outcome?
  • DFID/WB partnership to continue.
  • New DFID Social Exclusion Action Program to follow up on GSEA and the inclusion agenda for the next three years
  • Successful policy reform requires institutional change not only in the formal rules, regulations and laws -- but also in informal procedures, norms and practices.
  • And for some reforms – like social inclusion -successful implementation requires shifts in the taken-for-granted cognitive structures and values ...
  • …in other words, cultural change.
  • Like any reform, reforms involving these deep structural changes cannot be “done” by outsiders.
  • But it does not hurt for outsiders to try to understand the dynamics of the process and offer support to local champions!