Evesham Township and Marlton Gateway to Burlington County History
The Charter of West Jersey King Charles II granted the territory that later became New York and New Jersey to his brother James (later King James II), who conveyed New Jersey to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. In 1674, Berkeley sold western New Jersey to the Quakers John Fenwicke and Edward Byllynge. William Penn intervened in a dispute between Fenwicke and Byllynge, thus becoming involved in the affairs of New Jersey before assuming ownership of Pennsylvania. The colony of West Jersey operated under the Concessions and Agreements of March 13, 1677, probably drafted by William Penn. The Concessions and Agreements guaranteed many of the Quaker principles of civil government, including freedom of religion and trial by jury. William Penn
Even before the arrival of the Kent and Shield, the Quakers had a stake in Burlington County. George Fox himself (the founder of the Society of Friends) had crossed and re-crossed New Jersey during his religious visit to America in 1672. In fact, there is a record of Fox being in the Burlington City area on July 12, 1672. Fox visits New Jersey including Burlington in 1672 Later, William Penn was chosen by Fox to arbitrate a dispute between John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge over land in West Jersey in 1674 (Penn was 30 years old). "The purchase of 1674 is an event of the greatest historical significance for it marks the beginning of the first great Quaker experiment in American Colonization" says Edwin P. Tanner. As a result of his involvement, Penn helped establish the Province of West Jersey in 1680. Subsequently, in 1681, East Jersey was purchased. George Fox Founder of Quakerism
The Quaker influence on the origins, colonization and development of Burlington County goes back to the arrival from England of the Kent at Burlington City in 1677 and the Shield in 1678 and the involvement of William Penn in the establishing of West Jersey in 1680. The philosophy upon which Burlington County was formed was derived from the Concessions and Agreements of 1677. The Concessions, written by William Penn (1644-1718) and other Quakers, guaranteed representative government, fair treatment of Native Americans and civil rights and religious freedom and protection for all inhabitants. William Penn “The Shield” in Burlington – 1678 … and current monument on banks of Delaware
Concessions and Agreements“One of the most innovative political documentsof the 17th Century”
Surveyor General’s Office, West Broad St., Burlington The New Jersey Department of State is proud to announce today that the Division of Archives and Records Management has received on deposit the Council of Proprietors of West New Jersey’s vast holdings of historical surveys, record books and maps. Stored in Burlington for over three centuries, such monumental documents as the original 1664 patents from the Duke of York, the Concessions and Agreements of 1676, which served as West Jersey’s constitution and bill of rights, and many thousands of land surveys are now more accessible to the researching public than ever before. December 7, 2005
The Quaker colonists went right to work to establish schools, meeting houses and cemeteries throughout Burlington County, starting first in Burlington City. By 1681 there were 1,400 Quakers in Burlington County. Records show that in 1699 the "Friends" were more numerous in Burlington County than all other counties in the Delaware Valley. Artist’s rendering of Mount Laurel Friends Meeting, originally referred to as EVESHAM MEETING Quaker beliefs are manifested in “The four testimonies”: EQUALITY PEACE SIMPLICITY COMMUNITY
The Four Testimonies of Quakerism EQUALITY There is that of God in each person and each has opportunities to express that divinity. INTEGRITY (COMMUNITY) A person needs to be truly in harmony with oneself and to be whole spiritually one needs to live one’s beliefs. PEACE (HARMONY) A positive concern towards taking away the occasion of all wars and the commitment to non-violence in resolving all matters of conflict. SIMPLICITY A commitment to “living simply so that others may simply live;” avoiding all excess; living intentionally and with restraint; and living a life true to one’s beliefs.
Evesham (Mount Laurel) Meeting - 1694; 1717; 1760 (e); 1798 (w) Located at the intersection of Moorestown-Mount Laurel Road and Hainesport-Mount Laurel Road. Operated under the Moorestown Meeting. An Active Meeting. In June, 1778, British Troops on the way to Freehold temporarily took over the new portion. Built of New Jersey Sandstone quarried on “Evans’ Mount” (across the street). Two subsequent sections replaced the 1717 structure in 1760 and 1798 successively.
1. Cropwell - Evesham/Marlton - 1786; 1809 Located on Old Marlton Pike between South Cropwell and North Cropwell Sts. behind Burn’s Pontiac, close to the border with Camden County. Cropwell is an Active Meeting and celebrated the 200th anniversary of this building in 2009.
Burlington County’s Original 8 Townships A – Northampton B – Eversham C – Chester D – Wellingborrow E – Burlington F – Mansfield G – Chesterfield H – Springfield On November 6, 1688, Burlington County was divided for the first time into eight local subdivisions, each called a “constabulary” since each marked the jurisdiction of a constable.
In September, 1989, 25 residents of Evesham, Burlington County, visited Evesham, England for a “twinning” ceremony. The British reciprocated in April, 1990 by visiting the U.S. Evesham is a rural market town in Worchestershire, England, in the Local Authority District of Wychavon.
Evesham, England is located roughly equidistant between Worchester, Cheltenham and Stratford upon-Avon in an area known as the Vale of Evesham*, that was once a major English centre of market gardening. The town was originally built within a loop of the River Avon, and is subject to severe flooding. Evesham was the location of one of Europe's largest abbeys, of which only Abbot Lichfield's Bell Tower remains. Note: Some documents of Colonial Evesham in the U.S. refer to it as the “Vale of Eves.”
A Brief History of the Settlement of Evesham • 1677 – “The Kent” brings first settlers of Evesham to the City of Burlington • The first man to purchase lands in Evesham Township (“Evesboro” on early maps) from the West Jersey Proprietors was Thomas Eves, a Quaker. However, it cannot be proven that he lived on his land in Evesham. • By 1684, two other Quaker families, the Heulings and the Ballingers, had purchased adjoining tracts in Evesham, and were know to have been residing on and farming their land. Another family, William and Elizabeth Evans, also emigrated to New Jersey from Wales in 1685. A deed record from 1688 shows Evans obtaining 300 acres of land in Evesham at a place called Mt. Pray (Mt. Laurel). In 1694, the first Friends meeting in Mt. Laurel was held in the Evans home. Shortly thereafter, in 1698, the first Meeting House was built at Mt. Laurel, referred to as Evesham Meeting.
The Evans Family • William Evans, who had settled in Evesham in 1685, left the majority of his land to his sons, John and Thomas, in 1728. • John remained at Mt. Laurel while Thomas settled in what is now known as Marlton. • Thomas Evans purchased a tract of one thousand acres about two miles east of Evesham from Margaret Cook of Philadelphia. • In 1701, to eliminate any potential dispute with the Indians over the title of this land, Thomas drew up a deed which was signed by King Himolin, the Indian Chief. He exchanged five pounds for his land. • Thomas Evans served as a minister of the Friends Meeting and maintained an active farm until his death in 1783.
Another early Quaker family to settle in Evesham Township was the Wills. Dr. Daniel Wills came to New Jersey from England in 1677 aboard the "Kent". He located 600 acres in Northampton Township, Burlington County. • His grandson, James, founder of the Wills' homestead in Evesham, bought 1,888 acres from Michael Wanton in 1737. • He soon sold off portions of that tract to James Lippincott and his own son, Micajah. • Micajah, along with William Heulings, Thomas Evans, Thomas Eves, Samuel and Daniel Lippincott, Amos Haines, William Troth, Thomas Venable, Isaac Borton and Henry Ballinger, were among the early settlers in Evesham, bringing mills, farming and other industries to the area. • Prior to the 1760s, two main Indian trails were used as roads crossing the township, one from Cooper's Point through Marlton to Barnegat Bay, known as the Manahawkin Trail, and the other from Mount Holly down to the Mullica River. • The Manahawkin Trail, which was to become Main Street in Marlton, was the boundary between two Quaker family plantations, the Inskips and the Eves.
The early settlers: Abraham Heulings, Micajah Wills, Joseph Eves, John Eves, Thomas Evans, Thomas Inskip and Joshua Lippincott. 13 families who first settled Evesham Evans Family holdings in Evesham
In 1758, the Inskips opened a general store along the Manahawkin. A surviving ledger of the store's activities evidences that the store sold a variety of merchandise and functioned as a post office. A road survey shows the trail was upgraded in 1764 and at this time a school, sold in the 1770s, was in existence along its route. • On this same road, John Hammitt built the first inn in Evesham around 1780. The inn was to become the first official post office in 1808 earning Evesham the name of "Evesham Post Town." • Around the store and inn, a village of services, later known as Marlton, developed. It was the Quakers' charge to foster the growth of such villages and thus aid the settlement of the land in the township.
Marlton was a successful endeavor, while other villages such as Greentree, started by Thomas Eves in the 1770s, failed to survive. • In 1796, another road survey was taken to open up a new road directly to Camden from Marlton. The new road was proposed at the same time that Evesham's growth of small communities such as Marlton, Cropwell, and Medford was taking place. • As Evesham developed, the Quaker influence of the founding families became increasingly more visible. Not only did physical improvements such as churches and schools became abundant, but also apparent was the tolerance of other religions and the acceptance of runaway slaves. In addition, the government was administered by Quakers.
A Friends meeting was organized in Cropwell around 1760; the present meeting house was constructed in 1809. Prior to the construction of their meeting house, the Friends erected a school in 1785. • Another school, known as the Pine Grove School, was organized in 1792, also by the Friends of the Cropwell Meeting. • Meanwhile, in Marlton, the township's principal village, a Baptist Meeting House was built in 1805. The Evesham Baptist Church was eventually recognized and the Marlton Methodist Episcopal Church was established. • The discovery of marl in the village in the early 1800s led to the naming of "Marlton, which is said to have been laid out as a town in 1814. However, deed research indicates that land was not sold off in smaller lots until the, 1820s and '30s. • During that time, a descendant of Joseph Eves, Joseph E. Venecomb, and Isaac Stokes subdivided and sold the land on East and West Main Streets. Records show that taxes were being collected as early as 1810 in the township.
Following the early 1800s Evesham Township continued to grow, with institutions such as the London Grove School, built in 1820. • By 1830 Evesham Township was found to have eight villages: Evesham, Medford, Colestown, Lumberton, Fostertown, Evesham Cross Roads, Bodine (assumed to be centered around the Bodine Tavern) and Cropwell (assumed to be centered around the Cropwell Meeting House), inhabited by a population of 4,239. • Of these eight villages, Evesham, Bodine, and Cropwell are within the current Evesham Township municipal boundaries. Stores, saw mills, grist mills, fulling mills, and cider distilleries were listed as industries and Evesham and Medford as post office towns. • The Evesham Post Town became known as "Marlton" in 1845. The mid- to late-nineteenth century also saw the development of Evesham Township with additional villages such as Milford (now Kresson) around 1846 and Evesboro. • At the same time that the villages of Evesham Township were expanding with industries and institutions, the agricultural base of the township remained prosperous due to fertile lands and available marl. • The advent of the railroad in 1881 through the northern part of Evesham rapidly changed this area, opening up the agricultural base of the community to other industries.
11 Evesham venues on the National Register of Historic Places Plus 6 additional venues of historical significance
NRHP 1 Amos Haines Property, aka, Savich Farm, est. 1734, E. Main St. The Savich Farm is a 174-acre property along a tributary of the southwest branch of the Rancocas Creek. The farm was acquired by the Township of Evesham in 1975 with Green Acres funding. At the time of this acquision a large Italianate farmhouse occupied the property. Abandoned and allowed to deteriorate, the house was vandalized and eventually burned. The property remains on the State and national Registers, however, because of its archaeological significance. Preliminary excavations have uncovered extensive Late Archaic material, ranging in date from 1981 to 1690 B.C. Discoveries have included a large number of pits, hearths, and lithic debris, along with associated artifacts. Of great importance are the over 44 cremations identified to date, marking this as an important Native American burying ground.
NRHP 2 Savich Farm William Evans Farmhouse – c. 1740. – 501 East Main St. Amos Evans House – 1785 This is the oldest existing Evans house on the Thomas Evans 1,000-acre plantation. William, the eldest son of Thomas, received 200 acres as a love gift from his father. Two families and their descendants have occupied the farm for 211 years and George Bowker family since 1912. Two brick additions were made to the original frame house. Original doors, latches, wooden partitions, a winding stairway and cooking fireplace remain.
NRHP 3 Stokes-Evans House, built 1842, 52 East Main St., Marlton
NRHP 4 Elijah Birdsall Woolston1833-1910 Vincentown born Civil War Surgeon who after the war married Rachel Inskeep Haines and moved here in 1870, becoming a civic servant and community leader. They had 3 daughters. John Inskeep Homestead -1771 - 10 Madison Court, Marlton Headquarters of the Evesham Historical Society
NRHP 5 Thomas and Lydia Hollinshead House Greentree Center, Evesham Built 1776
NRHP 6 On original 1,888-acre track acquired by his grandfather, James Wills. Jacob as the great-great grandson of the famous pioneer Doctor, Daniel Wills, who acquired large land holdings Jacob Wills farmhouse, 1789 6 Brick Rd. @ Evans Rd. Wills, Jacob, Mary
NRHP 7 Cropwell - Evesham/Marlton - 1786; 1809 Located on Old Marlton Pike between South Cropwell and North Cropwell Sts. behind Burn’s Pontiac, close to the border with Camden County. Cropwell is one of the Active Meetings.
NRHP 8 Evans-Cooper House built circa 1773 (1800?) 251 N. Elmwood Road “Elmview”, the original Joseph Cooper house is subsumed in the north half of this ornate house. The next owner, David Evans, doubled the size of the house, c. 1850. Evans’ daughter, Lydia, and her husband, Benjamin Cooper, added the Italianate features. Benjamin, a prosperous dairyman, made good use of the meadows on the farm. Evesham Township acquired the property with Green Acres assistance.
NRHP 9 William & Susan Evans House, built 1822, 2 Bill’s Lane Behind Cherokee High School
NRHP 10 Thomas & Mary Evens House - 1785 Jacob Evans Farmhouse 1860 115 So. Elmwood Road Across from Indian Spring Golf Course The farm has been in the Evans family continuously since 1701, the date William Evans purchased the original 1,000-acre plantation. The house sets on the 233-acre tract that Nathan Evans purchased from his father, Thomas. In later years Nathan’s descendants sold it to his brother Jacob’s descendants. Still later the Cooper family became owners. The Coopers are descendants of Nathan’s older brother William.
NRHP 11 Thomas & Mary Evens House (1785) Indian Spring Golf Course Center for the Arts Located on original 1000-acre Evans plantation Purchased by Township from Robert Jaggard
12 John Lippincott Farmhouse – c. 1820 Greentree Road, between Charter Oak and Meeting House Lane The date of this house was revealed in John Lippincott’s 1822 will. He stated that “he is now living in his new house, located on Greentree Road.” He willed the property to son, Joseph B. Lippincott. The well-known fruit farmer, Barton, purchased the farm from Lippincott heirs.
13 UGRR 921 Marlton Pike E., Pine Grove. 875 East Tuckerton Road, Evesham (Pine Grove) - 1750 Isaac Evans House (on site of 1715 house of Thomas Evans), Evesham Twp., 1769 (owned by Dr. Haines, 1935).
14 Marlton Pike E. and Tuckerton Road, Pine Grove Across from Pine Grove Chapel – Next to now closed Roadside Nursery and Produce Stand Nathan Evans Farmhouse, c. 1756 This Evans house sets on the original Evans 1,000-acre plantation. Nathan purchased 233 acres from his father, Thomas Evans, in 1756. He died 13 years later. The farm was divided among his four young sons. Both Darnell and Morrison families have owned the property for many years Historic home is across Tuckerton Road from the 1906 Pine Grove Chapel, offering services as the Pine Grove Baptist Church.
Thomas Hewlings farmhouse, 1832 15 Evesboro-Medford Rd. cor. of Hewlings Ave. The stones of this cement-coated stone house were dug out of Hewlings’ Mount. The house and mount are located on the original 2,492 acre plantation which William Hewlings purchased in 1684. Only 2 families and their descendants farmed this land 6 generation of Hewlings, and two generations of Stows. The great-great grandson of William Hewlings, Amos, built this house in 1832 for his son Thomas, who received the deed for the property at his father’s death in 1862, 30 years after building. Morgan Stow was the last farmer.
16 Joseph & Lettice (Eves) Evans farmhouse, c. 1788 119 Brick Road The house sets on the original Eves homestead plantation. Lettice inherited the farm from her father, Joseph Eves. The west side is the original house. Additions and renovations have been made over the years. Maurice Horner Purchased it in 1934 Author: History of Evesham Twp. Tax Assessor & owner (14 yrs.) It housed the Tax Assessor’s Office for 33 years.The property descended down through the Eves-Evans family until Maurice W. Horner purchased it in 1934.
17 Evans Pond Tomlinson Mill Road This Mill Pond provided the water power to operate Evans Grist Mill, which was preceded by a Saw Mill built by Daniel Lippincott (the Lippincotts owned the property for 84 years). The Grist Mill changed hands many times, to Jennings, Engle, Tomlinson and Evans (who owned it for 108 years. The Lippincott residence nearby (built 1787) was occupied by subsequent generations Lippincotts, including Benjamin and Hugh. Evesham Township became owners of the mill tract through the Green Acres program with the state paying half and the Evans family donating the other half.
Evesham Township and The American Revolution The British Retreat from Philadelphia June 18 and 19, 1778
Factors Leading to the British Retreat from Philadelphia • February 6, 1778 – U.S. and France sign treaty: France recognizes US as independent nation and agrees to military alliance. • April 15, 1778, a French fleet sets sail for American with 12 ships and 4 frigates, mounting 834 guns and carrying 4,000 troops. • General Howe’s request for a reinforcement of 40,000 troops was disapproved. • Howe’s scouts reported that Washington was enlisting more men and increasing his equipment and supplies. • England declared war on France and Spain. • Clinton and Cornwallis were recalled to active duty in Philadelphia. Clinton replaced Howe as commander-in-chief and Cornwallis was appointed second in command to Clinton. Clinton Cornwallis
ORDERS TO EVACUATE • Clinton and Cornwallis carried orders for the evacuation of Philadelphia • It was of vital importance that the British army in Philadelphia join the troops in New York with the least delay. • The British recognized the danger of their troops being cut off from New York if the French should land in the Jerseys and march inland to the Delaware River. • Clinton arrives in Philadelphia on May 10, 1778 • Evacuation begins with equipment movement on May 22nd, 1778; Army crosses Delaware on June 15, 16 & 17. • About 1,500 Loyalist families went by ship to New York • 17,000 British troops were ferried across the Delaware for the land route to New York through New Jersey. • The 12-mile evacuation “train”: 1,500 baggage wagons, 5,000 horses, 2,500 camp followers
June 19 – 23, 1778 British Retreat from Philadelphia to Raritan Bay and NY via Burlington County– intercepted by Washington at Monmouth Courthouse on June 28th, 1778. Approaching Burlington County the British split into two columns at the former Ellisburg Circle (Rt. 70 & Rt. 41 – Kings Highway) before rejoining at Mt. Holly. Gen. Henry Clinton thru Evesham, Mt. Laurel, and Eayrestown Gen. von Knyphausen & Hessians thru Moorestown and Hainesport. From Mt. Holly they proceeded thru Mansfield into Chesterfield and on into Monmouth Co.
Lippincot/Eves, 42 Hamilton • Hollinshead, 18 W. Stow • Clinton Headquarters • Evesham (Mt. Laurel) Meeting 6/18 4 2 3 6/19 1 1 E V E S H A M GENERAL CLINTON’S ROUTE THROUGH EVESHAM, MT. LAUREL, LUMBERTON