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Diabetes Care Tasks at School: What Key Personnel Need to Know. DIABETES BASICS. Overall Goal: Optimal Student Health and Learning. Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia. Monitoring Blood Glucose. Ketones. Health & Learning. Legal Rights. Glucagon Administration. Exercise. Insulin

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Diabetes Care Tasks at School:

What Key Personnel

Need to Know


overall goal optimal student health and learning
Overall Goal: Optimal Student Health and Learning

Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia


Blood Glucose













learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Participants will learn:

  • What is diabetes?
  • Why care at school is required
  • Basic components of diabetes care at school
  • Short and long term consequences of diabetes
what is diabetes
What is Diabetes?

Body does not make or properly use insulin:

  • no insulin production
  • insufficient insulin production
  • resistance to insulin’s effects

No insulin to move glucose from blood into cells:

  • high blood glucose means:
    • fuel loss. cells starve
    • short and long-term complications
type 1 diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
  • auto immune disorder
  • insulin-producing cells destroyed
  • daily insulin replacement necessary
  • age of onset: usually childhood, young adulthood
  • most prevalent type of diabetes in children and adolescents

increased urination


weight loss

Type 1 Diabetes


relatively quick

increased thirst


blurred vision

uncertain, likely both genetic and environmental factors


type 2 diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
  • Insulin resistance – first step
  • Age at onset:
  • Most common in adults
  • Increasingly common in children
  • overweight
  • inactivity
type 2 diabetes8
Type 2 Diabetes

some children show no symptoms at diagnosis

in children

variable timeframe


tired, thirsty, hunger, increased urination


diabetes is managed but it does not go away
Diabetes is Managed,But it Does Not Go Away.


To maintain target blood glucose

diabetes management 24 7
Diabetes Management 24/7

Constant Juggling:




Food intake





diabetes management
Diabetes Management


  • keep juggling the balls


  • a response is indicated
  • corrective actions for highs or low
  • emergency intervention
assistance in diabetes management
Assistance in Diabetes Management

Routine Care:

  • Many students will be able to handle all or almost all routine diabetes care by themselves
  • Some students, because of age, developmental level, or inexperience, will need help from school staff.

Urgent Care:

  • Any student with diabetes may need help with emergency medical care.
care in the schools school nurses and others
Care in the Schools: School Nurses and Others

Nurse most appropriate to:

  • Supervise diabetes care
  • Provide direct care (when available)

However, a nurse is not always available.

Non-medical school staff can be trained to assist students

  • For both routine and emergency care
  • Including insulin and glucagon injections
diabetes medical management plan
Diabetes Medical Management Plan
  • A Diabetes Medical Management Plan (DMMP) should be implemented for every student with diabetes.
  • DMMP is
    • developed by the student’s personal health care team and family and signed by a member of student’s personal health care team
    • implemented collaboratively by the school diabetes team, including:
        • school nurse
        • the student
        • parents/guardians
        • other school personnel
elements of a dmmp
Elements of a DMMP
  • Date of diagnosis
  • Emergency contact information
  • Student’s ability to perform self-management tasks at school
  • List of diabetes equipment and supplies
  • Specific medical orders for blood glucose monitoring, insulin, glucagon, and other medications to be given at school
  • Meal and snack plan
  • Exercise requirements
  • Actions to be taken in response to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
quick reference plan
Quick Reference Plan
  • Development based on information from students DMMP
  • Summarizes how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
  • Distribute to all personnel who have responsibility for students with diabetes
how to tell if you have pre diabetes or diabetes
How to Tell if You Have Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes
  • While diabetes and pre-diabetes occur in people of all ages and races, some groups have a higher risk for developing the disease than others.
there are two different tests your doctor can use to determine whether you have diabetes
There are two different tests your doctor can use to determine whether you have diabetes: 
  • the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or
  • the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 

The blood glucose levels measured after these tests determine whether you have a normal metabolism, or whether you have pre-diabetes or diabetes.  If your blood glucose level is abnormal following the FPG, you have impaired fasting glucose (IFG); if your blood glucose level is abnormal following the OGTT, you have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

where to get more information
Where to Get More Information

American Diabetes Association


National Diabetes Education Program/NIH