Chapter 8:Matter & Motion Amanda Goering, Amanda O’Donnell & Caitlin Rink
Illinois Goals, Learning Standards and Benchmark(s) • STATE GOAL 12: Understand the fundamental concepts, principles and interconnections of the life, physical and earth/space sciences. • D. Know and apply concepts that describe force and motion and the principles that explain them. • 12.D.2b Demonstrate and explain ways that forces cause actions and reactions (e.g., magnets attracting and repelling; objects falling, rolling and bouncing).
Objectives - Students will be able to define Newton's three laws of motion. (LO,S)-Students will be able to hypothesize why some objects created bigger dents in the clay than others. (HO, S)
Matter • Anything that occupies space and has weight is matter. • Energy is defined as the capacity to do work or produce change. • Examples of energy include: light, sound, electricity, and heat. • Matter and Energy are related. Under special circumstances, matter can be changed into energy, and energy can be changed in to matter. • The are three types of physical matter: solids, liquids, or gasses. These forms are knows as states (or phases) of matter. • We also can describe matter by its color, how hard or soft it is, how it dissolves in liquid or whether it can be stretched or broken.
Matter • Matter can be changed from one state to another. • Physical changes in matter occur because: • Matter is made up of small particles called molecules • Spaces exist among the molecules • The molecules of matter are in constant motion. • When liquids go from a liquid to a gas, this is called evaporation. • Expansion occurs when the speed of the molecules in matter increase and they bump into one another and then tend to spread apart. • When the molecules move slower and come closer to one another, the matter contracts.
Motion “How long til we get there?” • The speed of an automobile is determined by the distance it travels in a given unit of time. It is often expressed by kilometers/miles per hour. • The speed and direction of an object is known as the velocity. The changes in velocity is known as acceleration. • Scientists define velocity as both speed and direction, an object that moves with constant speed yet changes direction is accelerating.
Newton’s Law’s of Motion Newton’s three laws of motion help us explain the motion of objects that are subjected to forces. • First Law- (aka law of inertia) states that an object at rest will remain at rest and a body moving with a constant velocity in a straight line will maintain its motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force. • Second Law- states that the amount of acceleration produced by a force acting on an object varies with the magnitude of the force and the mass of the object. • Third Law- states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Bibliography Abruscato, Joseph. Teaching children science: discovery activities and demonstrations for the elementary and middle grades. Allyn & Bacon, 2004. Print.