Chapter 3 THE CIVIL WAR Section 1: The Union Dissolves Section 2: The North and South Face Off Section 3: Fighting the War Section 4: The Final Phase
Section 3: Fighting the War Objectives: • How did Union forces gain control of the Mississippi River? • How did the northern and southern forces fare in the eastern campaigns? • How did the Union victory at Antietam change the Union’s war goals? • How did African American soldiers help the union? • What was the significance of the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville?
Section 3: Fighting the War Union victory at Shiloh • Confederate general Albert Johnston wounded. • gave Union a staging ground for offensives against southern cities along the Mississippi Union victory at New Orleans • gave Union control of mouth of Mississippi • cost the South its largest city and split Confederacy in half • weakened Confederate morale
Section 3: Fighting the War The Eastern Campaigns • McClellan laid siege to Yorktown as a preliminary to attacking Richmond. • Johnston held Yorktown for a month, then retreated toward Richmond. • Johnston was wounded in the Battle of Seven Pines and Lee halted the fighting. • Lee took advantage of McClellan’s failure to move by attacking in the Seven Days’ Battles. • Casualties on both sides were high but the South was considered the victor because McClellan retreated.
Section 3: Fighting the War A change in Union war goals Union victory at Antietam gave Lincoln the political support he needed to expand the North’s original war goal of saving the Union to include eliminating slavery.
Section 3: Fighting the War African American soldiers • Nearly 180,000 African American men served in the Union army. • 33,000 African Americans died in service. • African Americans served in the navy and participated in the attack on Fort Wagner. • More than 20 African American soldiers and sailors won the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Section 3: Fighting the War Battle of Fredericksburg The Confederate army defeated the Union army, and the Union suffered more than 12,000 casualties. Battle of Chancellorsville The Confederate army defeated the larger Union army but lost one of its best generals, Stonewall Jackson.