Why study sex? • Every society has made rules about it • Every society has enforced some of those rules • Every one of those rules has been “broken” • Sex is consequential because :
Sexual Acts are consequential • Internally • Externally • Private and Public • Rational and Uncontrollable
Sex and Behavioral Science is born • The history of sex has been • a history of punishment – • Sex codes are created, rule breakers are killed or beaten..
It has been legal not Psychological.. • Stoning for Trespasses.. • Being put in Prison(DeSade) • The Red Letter • Genital Mutilation ( males and females)
The Great Religions of the World have put down laws..Worried about “ Human Nature”.. • The Inner Life of the Individual- • “Rights of Man” did not occur to major thinkers in the West until “The Enlightenment” (Mid 18th century)
The Inner Life became interesting.. • This led to the first great “modern” sex researcher: • KRAFT- EBBLING ( 1840-1902) • AUSTRIAN PSYCHIATRIST
A. MODEL OF SADISM AND MASOCHISM • AS NATURAL STATES OF MEN AND WOMEN! “THE MAN PLAYS THE ACTIVE , EVEN AGGFRESSIVE ROLE- THE WOMAN, THE PASSIVE, DEFENSIVE ROLE”
Female subordination: “Natural and “Joyful
“MANY WOMEN LIKE NOTHING BETTER THAN TO GO DOWN ON THEIR KNEES IN FRONT OF THEIR HUSBANDS OR LOVERS”
But he could be interesting and compassionate” • B. THE IMPORTANCE OF FANTASY • C. SUGGESTED TREATMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY (VS. PRISON!!)
“ Love is for a man almost always only an episode next to which he has many and important interests, whilst for a woman it is the main object of her life
“Masochism ”__”The natural carried to an extreme”. • THE WISH OF A MAN TO BE CONQUERED BY A WOMAN.. • OR A WISH BY A WOMAN TO EXAGGERATE THE NATURAL BALANCE OF POWER • SEEN AS NORMAL AND ONLY DEVIANT IF IT WAS OUTSIDE OF TWO LOVING PARTNERS..
Sex:”a Psycho-Cerebral Act” “Frigidity” caused by “ husbands animalistic acts” rather than an innate female condition but also saw oral sex as “horrible acts”
On Homosexuality- • What WAS UNUSUAL? – He “TREATED” THEM RATHER THAN PUNISHED THEM OR RECCOMMENDED PRISON OR INSANE ASYLUM. • HE WAS SYMPATHETIC WITH THEIR SUFFERING
INTERESTED IN FEMALE SEXUALITY • WOMEN HAD AN INNATELY LESSER SEXUAL DRIVE … • THEREFORE MORE SEVERE PUNISHMENTS FOR FEMALE NON-MONOGAMY! • MENSTRUATING WOMEN LESS RESPONSIBLE FOR MISDEEDS BECAUSE THEY HAD “PERIODIC MADNESS”
A CONTEMPORARY WHO WAS MORE MODERN.. • HAVELOCK ELLIS ( 1859- 1939) • ONE OF THE FIRST LIBERALS IN SEX RESEARCH
FAMOUS BOOK: • 1896 • WROTE Studies in the Psychology of Sex
Accomplishments 1.FEMALE SEXUAL DESIRE AS NORMAL
MUCH MORE TOLERANT OF DEVIATION FROM THE NORM (FORERUNNER OF MODERN NON-JUGEMENTAL SEX RESEARCH)
Believed childhood sexual interest was normal • ACCEPTED MASTURBATION AS NORMAL..
Why was Masturbation so reviled? Biblical Prohibitions Fear of sexual arousal outside of marriage Medical diagnosis of madness “Against Nature” : ( Gender/Reproduction)
HE INFLUENCED THE GREATEST OF THE GERMAN PSYCHOANALYSTS • SIGMUND FREUD( 1856-1939)
FREUD WAS PLENTY SCREWED UP.. • But he was a genius…
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • 1- MUCH OF OUR DRIVES ARE UNCONSCIOUS • 2- FAMOUS FOR HIS THEORIES ON THE EXPRESSION OF SELF THROUGH DREAMS • 3- THEORIES OF CHILDHOOD AND FEMALE SEXUALITY • 4- AND THE ORIGINS OF SEXUAL DRIVE
THE ORGINS OF SEXUAL DRIVE/EROTIC ENERGY • THE ID “ CAULDRON OF DESIRE • THE EGO “ AGGRESSIVE PURSUIT OF • PLEASURE” • THE SUPER EGO ” GUILT, SHAME, SOCIAL • CONTROL”
THE IDEA OF A SEXUAL “DRIVE” Called “ LIBIDO” A HUGE ENERGY THAT “HAS TO BE SUBLIMATED FOR HUMAN PROGRESS,( ART, ETC) REPRESSED FOR HUMAN ORDER
THEORIES OF CHILDHOOD SEXUALITY • 1 The Controversial Idea of early childhood sexuality • The development of sexuality and gender explained by • The Oedipus Complex • The Electra Complex
Theories of Psycho-Sexual Development First year_ Oral Development • Second year- Anal Development • Third year to Fifth- Phallic Stage ( masturbation) homoerotic stage that “should pass” • 6th to Adolescence – Latency • Adolescence
Theories of Female Sexuality “WHAT DO WOMEN WANT ANYHOW?” ‘ANATOMY IS DESTINY” WOMEN AS BIOLOGICALLY INFERIOR TO MEN – no Penis- no castration complex therefore: no super ego
Female sexuality as inherently passive • “MATURE” AND “IMMATURE” FEMALE SEXUALITY • THE “VAGINAL ORGASM VERSUS THE “ CLITORAL “ ORGASM
A discovery of sexual molestation of children and women • Which he recanted later..
Following Freud: Non Clinical Sex Research –Surveys and Statistics • The work of • ALFRED KINSEY ( 1894- 1956)
Father of modern empirical surveys • Taxonomist- Biologist of the Gall Wasp • 1920 – went to Bloomington Indiana to teach • Biology at Indiana University • 1938 Starts a course of study on sexuality • after being asked to do a course on • marriage • Creates sex interviews and histories for study
Kinsey made news in 1948- 1953 • Two volumes one on Male Sexual Response • and one on Female Sexual Response • Female Sexual Response was the most controversial • 1947 founds the Institute for Sex Research
Major Accomplishments: The Kinsey Scale (coded: “outlets to orgasm”)
0-TOTALLY HETEROSEXUAL 1-HETEROSEXUAL, SLIGHT HOMOSEXUALITY 2-HETEROSEXUAL, SIGNIFICANT “ 3-EQUALLY HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL 4-HOMOSEXUAL WITH SIGNIFICANT HETEROSEX 5-HOMOSEXUAL WITH SLIGHT HETEROSEXUALITY 6-TOTALLY HOMOSEXUAL
HIS IDEA OF SEXUAL CONTINUUM • “PEOPLE ARE NOT DIVIDED INTO “SHEEP “ AND “GOATS”.
FINDINGS ON FEMALE SEXUALITY: MUCH MORE PRE-MARITAL SEX THAN IMAGINED • 33 per cent of all females had pre-marital intercourse by age 25 (71%) of men • 50% non virgins at marriage • Most women not“ frigid”- • 5 64% had had an orgasm-before marriage.
AND REVELATIONS ON CONTRACEPTION.. • 2/3 OF MARRIED WOMEN WERE USING THE DIAPHRAM – • HIGH RATE OF TERMINATED PREGNANCIES (1/5married women) • ( made abortion a pubic issue again)
FINDINGS ON HOMOSEXUALITY MOST CONTROVERSIAL- ON MEN: (over 16) 37% OF MEN -ONE EXPERIENCE TO ORGASM (13% FEMALE) 11% “SIGNIFICANT” SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (28% FEMALE- EXPERIENCED AROUSAL) 4% LIFETIME HOMOSEXUALITY (3% FEMALE)
Normalizing MASTURBATION • BY AGE 15- 85% OF BOYS • 20% OF GIRLS’ • TOTAL- MEN ABOUT 100% • WOMEN ABOUT 50%
Findings on marital sex • Orgasm was much more common with each older cohort • Younger women did more positions • Oral sex increased with the younger cohorts • Significant gender, class and racial differences
CRITICISM OF THE KINSEY STUDIES • 1. INADEQUATE SAMPLING AND OVER GENERALIZATION
1- VOLUNTEER SAMPLE • 2- OVER SAMPLING ( INDIANA , EDUCATED, STUDENTS) • 3-UNDER SAMPLING ( WORKING CLASS, LESS EDUCATED, RURAL, CATHOLICS AND JEWS. • 4-USE OF PRISON DATA
6. INTERVIEWS WITH PEDOPHILE • MOLESTED 600 PLUS PRE0ADOLESCENT MALES , 200 PLUS PRE-ADOLESCENT FEMALES
In general: Neither Psychological or Sociological • SEX AS AN ACT RATHER THAN EMBEDDED IN A RELATIONSHIPS, LOVE, CULTURE ETC..
FOLLOWED BY THE “SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS” WILLIAM SIMON AND AND JOHN GAGNON (1960s) WROTE “SEXUAL CONDUCT” • THE EXPERIENCE OF SEX IS CULTURALLY CONSTRUCTED THROUGH THE INTERACTION OF HUMAN BEINGS…
The same act is never the same! • It depends on the relationship, the context, the person’s background, the other person’s background, etc/