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287 GIANTS OF SEX RESEARCH

287 GIANTS OF SEX RESEARCH

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287 GIANTS OF SEX RESEARCH

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  1. 287 GIANTS OF SEX RESEARCH 2013

  2. Why study sex? • Every society has made rules about it • Every society has enforced some of those rules • Every one of those rules has been “broken” • Sex is consequential because :

  3. Sexual Acts are consequential • Internally • Externally • Private and Public • Rational and Uncontrollable

  4. Sex and Behavioral Science is born • The history of sex has been • a history of punishment – • Sex codes are created, rule breakers are killed or beaten..

  5. It has been legal not Psychological.. • Stoning for Trespasses.. • Being put in Prison(DeSade) • The Red Letter • Genital Mutilation ( males and females)

  6. The Great Religions of the World have put down laws..Worried about “ Human Nature”.. • The Inner Life of the Individual- • “Rights of Man” did not occur to major thinkers in the West until “The Enlightenment” (Mid 18th century)

  7. The Inner Life became interesting.. • This led to the first great “modern” sex researcher: • KRAFT- EBBLING ( 1840-1902) • AUSTRIAN PSYCHIATRIST

  8. A. MODEL OF SADISM AND MASOCHISM • AS NATURAL STATES OF MEN AND WOMEN! “THE MAN PLAYS THE ACTIVE , EVEN AGGFRESSIVE ROLE- THE WOMAN, THE PASSIVE, DEFENSIVE ROLE”

  9. Female subordination: “Natural and “Joyful

  10. “MANY WOMEN LIKE NOTHING BETTER THAN TO GO DOWN ON THEIR KNEES IN FRONT OF THEIR HUSBANDS OR LOVERS”

  11. But he could be interesting and compassionate” • B. THE IMPORTANCE OF FANTASY • C. SUGGESTED TREATMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY (VS. PRISON!!)

  12. “ Love is for a man almost always only an episode next to which he has many and important interests, whilst for a woman it is the main object of her life

  13. “Masochism ”__”The natural carried to an extreme”. • THE WISH OF A MAN TO BE CONQUERED BY A WOMAN.. • OR A WISH BY A WOMAN TO EXAGGERATE THE NATURAL BALANCE OF POWER • SEEN AS NORMAL AND ONLY DEVIANT IF IT WAS OUTSIDE OF TWO LOVING PARTNERS..

  14. Sex:”a Psycho-Cerebral Act” “Frigidity” caused by “ husbands animalistic acts” rather than an innate female condition but also saw oral sex as “horrible acts”

  15. On Homosexuality- • What WAS UNUSUAL? – He “TREATED” THEM RATHER THAN PUNISHED THEM OR RECCOMMENDED PRISON OR INSANE ASYLUM. • HE WAS SYMPATHETIC WITH THEIR SUFFERING

  16. INTERESTED IN FEMALE SEXUALITY • WOMEN HAD AN INNATELY LESSER SEXUAL DRIVE … • THEREFORE MORE SEVERE PUNISHMENTS FOR FEMALE NON-MONOGAMY! • MENSTRUATING WOMEN LESS RESPONSIBLE FOR MISDEEDS BECAUSE THEY HAD “PERIODIC MADNESS”

  17. A CONTEMPORARY WHO WAS MORE MODERN.. • HAVELOCK ELLIS ( 1859- 1939) • ONE OF THE FIRST LIBERALS IN SEX RESEARCH

  18. FAMOUS BOOK: • 1896 • WROTE Studies in the Psychology of Sex

  19. Accomplishments 1.FEMALE SEXUAL DESIRE AS NORMAL

  20. MUCH MORE TOLERANT OF DEVIATION FROM THE NORM (FORERUNNER OF MODERN NON-JUGEMENTAL SEX RESEARCH)

  21. URGED ACCEPTANCE OF UNIQUE ACTS OF HOMOSEXUALITY AS HARMLESS

  22. Believed childhood sexual interest was normal • ACCEPTED MASTURBATION AS NORMAL..

  23. Why was Masturbation so reviled? Biblical Prohibitions Fear of sexual arousal outside of marriage Medical diagnosis of madness “Against Nature” : ( Gender/Reproduction)

  24. HE INFLUENCED THE GREATEST OF THE GERMAN PSYCHOANALYSTS • SIGMUND FREUD( 1856-1939)

  25. FREUD WAS PLENTY SCREWED UP.. • But he was a genius…

  26. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • 1- MUCH OF OUR DRIVES ARE UNCONSCIOUS • 2- FAMOUS FOR HIS THEORIES ON THE EXPRESSION OF SELF THROUGH DREAMS • 3- THEORIES OF CHILDHOOD AND FEMALE SEXUALITY • 4- AND THE ORIGINS OF SEXUAL DRIVE

  27. THE ORGINS OF SEXUAL DRIVE/EROTIC ENERGY • THE ID “ CAULDRON OF DESIRE • THE EGO “ AGGRESSIVE PURSUIT OF • PLEASURE” • THE SUPER EGO ” GUILT, SHAME, SOCIAL • CONTROL”

  28. THE IDEA OF A SEXUAL “DRIVE” Called “ LIBIDO” A HUGE ENERGY THAT “HAS TO BE SUBLIMATED FOR HUMAN PROGRESS,( ART, ETC) REPRESSED FOR HUMAN ORDER

  29. THEORIES OF CHILDHOOD SEXUALITY • 1 The Controversial Idea of early childhood sexuality • The development of sexuality and gender explained by • The Oedipus Complex • The Electra Complex

  30. Theories of Psycho-Sexual Development First year_ Oral Development • Second year- Anal Development • Third year to Fifth- Phallic Stage ( masturbation) homoerotic stage that “should pass” • 6th to Adolescence – Latency • Adolescence

  31. Theories of Female Sexuality “WHAT DO WOMEN WANT ANYHOW?” ‘ANATOMY IS DESTINY” WOMEN AS BIOLOGICALLY INFERIOR TO MEN – no Penis- no castration complex therefore: no super ego

  32. Female sexuality as inherently passive • “MATURE” AND “IMMATURE” FEMALE SEXUALITY • THE “VAGINAL ORGASM VERSUS THE “ CLITORAL “ ORGASM

  33. A discovery of sexual molestation of children and women • Which he recanted later..

  34. Following Freud: Non Clinical Sex Research –Surveys and Statistics • The work of • ALFRED KINSEY ( 1894- 1956)

  35. Father of modern empirical surveys • Taxonomist- Biologist of the Gall Wasp • 1920 – went to Bloomington Indiana to teach • Biology at Indiana University • 1938 Starts a course of study on sexuality • after being asked to do a course on • marriage • Creates sex interviews and histories for study

  36. Kinsey made news in 1948- 1953 • Two volumes one on Male Sexual Response • and one on Female Sexual Response • Female Sexual Response was the most controversial • 1947 founds the Institute for Sex Research

  37. Major Accomplishments: The Kinsey Scale (coded: “outlets to orgasm”)

  38. 0-TOTALLY HETEROSEXUAL 1-HETEROSEXUAL, SLIGHT HOMOSEXUALITY 2-HETEROSEXUAL, SIGNIFICANT “ 3-EQUALLY HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL 4-HOMOSEXUAL WITH SIGNIFICANT HETEROSEX 5-HOMOSEXUAL WITH SLIGHT HETEROSEXUALITY 6-TOTALLY HOMOSEXUAL

  39. HIS IDEA OF SEXUAL CONTINUUM • “PEOPLE ARE NOT DIVIDED INTO “SHEEP “ AND “GOATS”.

  40. FINDINGS ON FEMALE SEXUALITY: MUCH MORE PRE-MARITAL SEX THAN IMAGINED • 33 per cent of all females had pre-marital intercourse by age 25 (71%) of men • 50% non virgins at marriage • Most women not“ frigid”- • 5 64% had had an orgasm-before marriage.

  41. AND REVELATIONS ON CONTRACEPTION.. • 2/3 OF MARRIED WOMEN WERE USING THE DIAPHRAM – • HIGH RATE OF TERMINATED PREGNANCIES (1/5married women) • ( made abortion a pubic issue again)

  42. FINDINGS ON HOMOSEXUALITY MOST CONTROVERSIAL- ON MEN: (over 16) 37% OF MEN -ONE EXPERIENCE TO ORGASM (13% FEMALE) 11% “SIGNIFICANT” SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (28% FEMALE- EXPERIENCED AROUSAL) 4% LIFETIME HOMOSEXUALITY (3% FEMALE)

  43. Normalizing MASTURBATION • BY AGE 15- 85% OF BOYS • 20% OF GIRLS’ • TOTAL- MEN ABOUT 100% • WOMEN ABOUT 50%

  44. Findings on marital sex • Orgasm was much more common with each older cohort • Younger women did more positions • Oral sex increased with the younger cohorts • Significant gender, class and racial differences

  45. CRITICISM OF THE KINSEY STUDIES • 1. INADEQUATE SAMPLING AND OVER GENERALIZATION

  46. 1- VOLUNTEER SAMPLE • 2- OVER SAMPLING ( INDIANA , EDUCATED, STUDENTS) • 3-UNDER SAMPLING ( WORKING CLASS, LESS EDUCATED, RURAL, CATHOLICS AND JEWS. • 4-USE OF PRISON DATA

  47. 6. INTERVIEWS WITH PEDOPHILE • MOLESTED 600 PLUS PRE0ADOLESCENT MALES , 200 PLUS PRE-ADOLESCENT FEMALES

  48. In general: Neither Psychological or Sociological • SEX AS AN ACT RATHER THAN EMBEDDED IN A RELATIONSHIPS, LOVE, CULTURE ETC..

  49. FOLLOWED BY THE “SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS” WILLIAM SIMON AND AND JOHN GAGNON (1960s) WROTE “SEXUAL CONDUCT” • THE EXPERIENCE OF SEX IS CULTURALLY CONSTRUCTED THROUGH THE INTERACTION OF HUMAN BEINGS…

  50. The same act is never the same! • It depends on the relationship, the context, the person’s background, the other person’s background, etc/