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Weather Briefings. Minnesota Balloon Association April 8, 2006 Brad Temeyer [email protected] Goals of Presentation. Show you various formats a forecast can be displayed Show you some of the tools meteorologists or FAA flight briefers use in preparing a briefing

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Weather Briefings

Minnesota Balloon Association

April 8, 2006

Brad Temeyer

[email protected]

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Goals of Presentation

  • Show you various formats a forecast can be displayed

  • Show you some of the tools meteorologists or FAA flight briefers use in preparing a briefing

  • Teach you how to identify a rapidly changing atmosphere

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Grid Forecasts

  • Allows for more precise “point” forecasts

  • Separate grids for:

    • Temp (Max, Min, Hourly)

    • Dew point

    • Wind (direction and speed)

    • Weather conditions

    • Sky Cover

    • Precipitation Probability

    • QPF

  • Can be broken down into smaller time increments than “today” and “tonight”

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Local Aviation Forecasts or

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Surface Observations

  • Temperature (F)- upper left hand corner

  • Weather symbol- center left hand site

  • Dew point (F) – lower left hand corner

  • Cloud cover – center circle

  • Wind direction and speed- barb extending from circle

  • Atmospheric pressure (SL to nearest tenth of millibar)- upper right hand corner

METAR KMSN 111453Z AUTO 13014KT 4SM BR BKN015 18/14 A2961 RMK AO2 SLP027 T01780144

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Satellites-Visible Imagery

  • Visible-measures reflected solar energy

    • Works just like a camera-worthless at night

    • Brightest clouds indicate high concentrations of particles (e.g. ice and water vapor)

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Satellite-Infrared Imagery

  • Infrared-measure cloud top temperature

    • Enhances coldest temperatures

    • Only measure highest clouds in a layer

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Satellite-Water Vapor

  • Water Vapor-displays amount of water vapor in atmosphere

    • Aid in identifying upper level disturbances in atmosphere

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Atmospheric Soundings

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Model Plots

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  • TAF- Terminal aerodrome forecast

  • Issued for a five mile radius area surrounding the airport

    • Surface wind (direction, speed, gusts)

    • Visibility

    • Weather (if needed)

    • Obstruction to visibility (if needed)

    • Sky cover, cloud heights

    • Non-convective low level wind shear

  • Can give you a ballpark idea of what to expect

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  • 20000 ft+ agl

  • Cause halos around sun or moon

  • Can signify approach of a disturbance

  • Appears bright on infrared satellite, dull on visible

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  • ~15,000 ft agl

  • Indicate unstable atmosphere aloft

  • Can be a precursor to thunderstorm development when viewed early in the day

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  • Develop 5,000 to 8,000 ft agl

  • Little vertical development

  • Form typically at the top of mixed layer near surface

  • No significant weather expected unless become widespread and dense

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Towering Cumulus

  • Cloud bases typically occur around 5,000-8,000 ft agl

  • Signify a relatively deep unstable layer developing updraft-thunderstorm potential

  • If cloud collapses, could produce outflow

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  • Thunderstorm Clouds

  • All severe weather types are possible

  • Good idea to keep feet on the ground

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  • Rain falls into dry layer near surface and evaporates

    • Evaporated rain, i.e. Virga can enhance downdrafts

  • Outflow boundaries

    • Outflow from thunderstorms can travel 50+ miles away from a thunderstorm, causing sudden wind shear

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  • Pouch like clouds

  • Indicate severe turbulence and wind shear