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Weather Briefings

Weather Briefings

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Weather Briefings

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  1. Weather Briefings Minnesota Balloon Association April 8, 2006 Brad Temeyer Brad.Temeyer@noaa.gov

  2. Goals of Presentation • Show you various formats a forecast can be displayed • Show you some of the tools meteorologists or FAA flight briefers use in preparing a briefing • Teach you how to identify a rapidly changing atmosphere

  3. http://www.weather.gov

  4. http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/graphical/sectors

  5. Grid Forecasts • Allows for more precise “point” forecasts • Separate grids for: • Temp (Max, Min, Hourly) • Dew point • Wind (direction and speed) • Weather conditions • Sky Cover • Precipitation Probability • QPF • Can be broken down into smaller time increments than “today” and “tonight” http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/graphical/sectors/index.php

  6. http://www.weather.gov

  7. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mpx or http://www.weather.gov

  8. Tabular Forecast

  9. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/fsd or http://www.weather.gov

  10. Activity Planner

  11. Activity Planner

  12. Local Aviation Forecasts http://www.crh.noaa.gov/arx or http://www.weather.gov

  13. Hot Air Balloon Forecasts-Rochester, MN

  14. Surface Observations • Temperature (F)- upper left hand corner • Weather symbol- center left hand site • Dew point (F) – lower left hand corner • Cloud cover – center circle • Wind direction and speed- barb extending from circle • Atmospheric pressure (SL to nearest tenth of millibar)- upper right hand corner METAR KMSN 111453Z AUTO 13014KT 4SM BR BKN015 18/14 A2961 RMK AO2 SLP027 T01780144

  15. Observations H L http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/surface

  16. Satellites and Radar

  17. Satellites-Visible Imagery • Visible-measures reflected solar energy • Works just like a camera-worthless at night • Brightest clouds indicate high concentrations of particles (e.g. ice and water vapor)

  18. Satellite-Infrared Imagery • Infrared-measure cloud top temperature • Enhances coldest temperatures • Only measure highest clouds in a layer

  19. Satellite-Water Vapor • Water Vapor-displays amount of water vapor in atmosphere • Aid in identifying upper level disturbances in atmosphere

  20. VAD Wind Profiler

  21. Wind Profilers

  22. Atmospheric Soundings http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/upper

  23. ACARS

  24. BUFKIT http://www.erh.noaa.gov/buf/bufkit/bufkit.html

  25. Model Plots http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/models

  26. TAFs • TAF- Terminal aerodrome forecast • Issued for a five mile radius area surrounding the airport • Surface wind (direction, speed, gusts) • Visibility • Weather (if needed) • Obstruction to visibility (if needed) • Sky cover, cloud heights • Non-convective low level wind shear • Can give you a ballpark idea of what to expect

  27. Cloud Clues

  28. Cirrus • 20000 ft+ agl • Cause halos around sun or moon • Can signify approach of a disturbance • Appears bright on infrared satellite, dull on visible

  29. Altocumulus • ~15,000 ft agl • Indicate unstable atmosphere aloft • Can be a precursor to thunderstorm development when viewed early in the day

  30. Stratocumulus • Develop 5,000 to 8,000 ft agl • Little vertical development • Form typically at the top of mixed layer near surface • No significant weather expected unless become widespread and dense

  31. Towering Cumulus • Cloud bases typically occur around 5,000-8,000 ft agl • Signify a relatively deep unstable layer developing updraft-thunderstorm potential • If cloud collapses, could produce outflow

  32. Cumulonimbus • Thunderstorm Clouds • All severe weather types are possible • Good idea to keep feet on the ground

  33. Downdrafts • Rain falls into dry layer near surface and evaporates • Evaporated rain, i.e. Virga can enhance downdrafts • Outflow boundaries • Outflow from thunderstorms can travel 50+ miles away from a thunderstorm, causing sudden wind shear

  34. Mammatus • Pouch like clouds • Indicate severe turbulence and wind shear