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Weather Briefings. Minnesota Balloon Association April 8, 2006 Brad Temeyer Brad.Temeyer@noaa.gov. Goals of Presentation. Show you various formats a forecast can be displayed Show you some of the tools meteorologists or FAA flight briefers use in preparing a briefing

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weather briefings

Weather Briefings

Minnesota Balloon Association

April 8, 2006

Brad Temeyer

Brad.Temeyer@noaa.gov

goals of presentation
Goals of Presentation
  • Show you various formats a forecast can be displayed
  • Show you some of the tools meteorologists or FAA flight briefers use in preparing a briefing
  • Teach you how to identify a rapidly changing atmosphere
grid forecasts
Grid Forecasts
  • Allows for more precise “point” forecasts
  • Separate grids for:
    • Temp (Max, Min, Hourly)
    • Dew point
    • Wind (direction and speed)
    • Weather conditions
    • Sky Cover
    • Precipitation Probability
    • QPF
  • Can be broken down into smaller time increments than “today” and “tonight”

http://www.weather.gov/forecasts/graphical/sectors/index.php

local aviation forecasts
Local Aviation Forecasts

http://www.crh.noaa.gov/arx or http://www.weather.gov

surface observations
Surface Observations
  • Temperature (F)- upper left hand corner
  • Weather symbol- center left hand site
  • Dew point (F) – lower left hand corner
  • Cloud cover – center circle
  • Wind direction and speed- barb extending from circle
  • Atmospheric pressure (SL to nearest tenth of millibar)- upper right hand corner

METAR KMSN 111453Z AUTO 13014KT 4SM BR BKN015 18/14 A2961 RMK AO2 SLP027 T01780144

observations
Observations

H

L

http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/surface

satellites visible imagery
Satellites-Visible Imagery
  • Visible-measures reflected solar energy
    • Works just like a camera-worthless at night
    • Brightest clouds indicate high concentrations of particles (e.g. ice and water vapor)
satellite infrared imagery
Satellite-Infrared Imagery
  • Infrared-measure cloud top temperature
    • Enhances coldest temperatures
    • Only measure highest clouds in a layer
satellite water vapor
Satellite-Water Vapor
  • Water Vapor-displays amount of water vapor in atmosphere
    • Aid in identifying upper level disturbances in atmosphere
atmospheric soundings
Atmospheric Soundings

http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/upper

bufkit
BUFKIT

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/buf/bufkit/bufkit.html

model plots
Model Plots

http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/models

slide28
TAFs
  • TAF- Terminal aerodrome forecast
  • Issued for a five mile radius area surrounding the airport
    • Surface wind (direction, speed, gusts)
    • Visibility
    • Weather (if needed)
    • Obstruction to visibility (if needed)
    • Sky cover, cloud heights
    • Non-convective low level wind shear
  • Can give you a ballpark idea of what to expect
cirrus
Cirrus
  • 20000 ft+ agl
  • Cause halos around sun or moon
  • Can signify approach of a disturbance
  • Appears bright on infrared satellite, dull on visible
altocumulus
Altocumulus
  • ~15,000 ft agl
  • Indicate unstable atmosphere aloft
  • Can be a precursor to thunderstorm development when viewed early in the day
stratocumulus
Stratocumulus
  • Develop 5,000 to 8,000 ft agl
  • Little vertical development
  • Form typically at the top of mixed layer near surface
  • No significant weather expected unless become widespread and dense
towering cumulus
Towering Cumulus
  • Cloud bases typically occur around 5,000-8,000 ft agl
  • Signify a relatively deep unstable layer developing updraft-thunderstorm potential
  • If cloud collapses, could produce outflow
cumulonimbus
Cumulonimbus
  • Thunderstorm Clouds
  • All severe weather types are possible
  • Good idea to keep feet on the ground
downdrafts
Downdrafts
  • Rain falls into dry layer near surface and evaporates
    • Evaporated rain, i.e. Virga can enhance downdrafts
  • Outflow boundaries
    • Outflow from thunderstorms can travel 50+ miles away from a thunderstorm, causing sudden wind shear
mammatus
Mammatus
  • Pouch like clouds
  • Indicate severe turbulence and wind shear