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United Nations The UN logo shows the world held the “olive branches of peace”. The Aims of the United Nations: To keep peace throughout the world. To develop friendly relations between nations.

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united nations

United Nations

The UN logo shows the world held

the “olive branches of peace”.

the aims of the united nations
The Aims of the United Nations:
  • To keep peace throughout the world.
  • To develop friendly relations between nations.
  • To work together to help people live better lives, to eliminate poverty,disease and illiteracy in the world,
  • To stop environmental destruction and to encourage respect for each other's rights and freedoms.
  • To be a centre for helping nations achieve these aims.
the principles of the united nations
All Member States have sovereign equality.

All Member States must obey the Charter.

Countries must try to settle their differences by peaceful means.

Countries must avoid using force or threatening to use force.

The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country.

Countries should try to assist the United Nations.

The Principles of the United Nations:
the covenant of the league of nations begins
The Covenant of the League of Nations begins...

“In order to promote international cooperation and to achieve international peace and security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations between nations, by the firm establishment of the understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the dealing of organised peoples with one another, Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations."

the international court of justice
The International Court of Justice
  • Principal judicial organ of the United Nations
    • seat is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). It
  • began in 1946
    • replaced the Permanent Court of International Justice which had functioned in the Peace Palace since 1922.
  • Operates under a Statute similar to its predecessor
    • integral part of the Charter of the United Nations
the international court of justice10
The International Court of Justice
  • Composed of 15 judges
    • elected to nine-year terms of office
    • by the United Nations General Assembly and
    • Security Council (sitting independently of each other)
    • may not include more than one judge of any nationality.
    • Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats, and retiring judges may be re-elected.
  • The Members of the Court
    • Do not represent their governments
    • Must possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices
the general assembly
The General Assembly
  • Now 191 members
    • originally 51 (in 1945)
    • A nation can be added upon recommendation by the Security Council
  • Can address any issue not actively before Security Council
  • Advisory; no enforcement powers
the security council
The Security Council
  • Primary body to establish peacekeeping policy and authorize action
  • 15 members
    • 9 votes needed to pass a resolution
    • 5 permanent members with veto power
      • USA, Russia, UK, France, PRC
    • 10 rotating members named by General Assembly
un secretariat
UN Secretariat
  • Administration and management
  • Staff to the General Assembly and Security Council
  • Implements actions directed by Security Council and General Assembly
the specialized agencies
The Specialized Agencies
  • Separate, autonomous intergovernmental organizations
    • work with the UN and with each other.
  • Carry out work relating to specific fields
    • trade, communications, air and maritime
    • transport, agriculture and development.
  • Autonomous, BUT
    • Must work within a country or between countries is always
    • depend on funds from Member States to achieve their goals.
international atomic energy agency
  • The first nuclear reactor was built in 1951.
    • 17 nuclear reactors in 1960
    • 90 in 1970
    • 263 in 1980.
    • now 400 nuclear power plants in 31 countries.
  • In 2000, nuclear power electricity was:
    • 31 percent of Western Europe
    • 15 percent of Northern America
    • 2.8 percent of Southern America
    • 2.4 percent of Africa
international atomic energy agency iaef
  • To promote the safe and peaceful applications of atomic energy while guarding against its destructive use.
  • To serve as the global forum for sharing nuclear know-how and techniques among industrialized and developing countries alike.
international maritime organization imo
  • Founded in 1948, the IMO:
    • Works towards improving maritime safety;
    • Fights marine pollution;
    • Is setting up a compensation system for people incurring financial losses linked to marine pollution;
    • Has established an international system for distress calls and searches and rescue operations
international monetary fund imf
  • Promote international cooperation on monetary issues;
  • Facilitate the balanced growth of international trade;
  • Provide governments with financial resources to correct payments' imbalances;
  • Ensure that the programmes adopted do not adversely affect the poorest sectors of society
world bank

As it works to help alleviate poverty, the World Bank has 4.7 billion clients around the world. Today, of these 4.7 billion:

  • 3 billion live on less than $2 a day.
    • 1.3 billion live on less than $1 a day.
  • 100 million go to bed hungry every night.
  • More than a billion don't have clean water to drink.
  • Hundreds of thousands of women die
    • in childbirth-related deaths due to inadequate health and sanitation.
  • Nearly 40 million children die every year
    • From diseases for which there are known cures
world bank a development institution made up of 5 associated agencies
World Bank: A development institution made up of 5 associated agencies
  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD):
    • lends to developing countries with relatively high per capita incomes;
  • International Development Association (IDA)
    • provides interest-free loans to the poorest developing countries;
  • International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    • promotes growth in developing countries through private sector;
  • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
    • provides guarantees to foreign investors for loss caused by noncommercial risk;
  • International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
    • promotes international investment through conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes between foreign investors and their host countries.
world health organization
  • Direct and coordinate international health work and promote technical cooperation in this field;
  • Assist Governments, upon request, in strengthening health services;
  • Provide appropriate technical assistance and, in emergencies, necessary aid at the governments' request;
  • Stimulate and advance work on the prevention and control of epidemic, endemic and other diseases;
  • Promote and coordinate biomedical and health services research
world health organization24
  • Eeradication of smallpox has allowed the world to save up to $1 billion every year in vaccination expenses.
  • Each year, 17 million people, equivalent to the combined population of Switzerland and Belgium, die of infectious diseases.
  • Poliomyelitis is expected to be totally eradicated within the next three years.
  • Immunizing a child against the six deadliest diseases costs less than $15.
  • Twenty-four million people die every year of cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.
  • Thirty new diseases have emerged over the last 20 years
united nations educational scientific and cultural organization
  • • 900 million adults are illiterate
    • 120 million school-age children do not go to school. On the
  • 9,000 newspapers published daily in the world
    • more than half in developing countries,
    • only 200in the whole of Africa.
  • 2000: 2.7 billion adults can read and write today
    • compared to 1 billion in 1960.
  • Facilitate understanding of major developments in today's world
  • Prod authorities to set objectives, and adopt the corresponding policies, in the fields of education, science, culture, communications
  • Serve as an international centre for the exchange of information in the areas of education, sciences, culture and communications
  • Facilitate the progress, transfer and sharing of knowledge by encouraging research, training and education
  • Provide technical expertise to assist countries in formulating their policies and development projects
  • When the Aswan Dam was built, the temple of Abu Simbel might have been lost under the waters had it not been for UNESCO. Stone by stone, UNESCO experts moved it from the bottom to the top of the valley, stone by stone. It is 1 of 500 sites protected by UNESCO under its World Heritage programme
  • A third of the world's population is under 18 years old.
    • 9 out of 10 children live in developing countries.
  • Of the 140 million children in developing countries not attending primary school, about 60 per cent are girls.
  • Some 250 million children aged 5 to 14 work, half of them full time.
  • In developing countries, almost a third of children under age five are malnourished.
  • Approximately 250,000 children under age 18 served in armed conflicts in 1995 and 1996.
united nations children s fund
  • Defend, promote and protect children's rights;
  • Mobilize political will and material resources to help countries form appropriate policies and deliver services for children and families;
  • Ensure special protection for the world's most disadvantaged children;
  • Promote the equal rights of girls and women and support their full participation in the development of their communities.
international un conferences
International UN Conferences

Held since the1960s

Gaining significance:

  • Conference on Environment and Development, known as
  • the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992