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Towards a General Theory of Welfare Regimes in Developing Countries Ian Gough. The Millennium Development Goals. N ew interest today in social policy in developing countries. Millennium Development Goals commit the UN and its member states to , for example :
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in Developing Countries
New interest today in social policy in developing countries. Millennium Development Goals commit the UN and its member states to, for example:
These bold and ambitious goals mark a new step forward in global discourses on social policy.
We adapt the welfare regime approach, originally developed by Esping-Andersen
Thisapproach emphasizes diversity, difference and divergenceacross the world.
It thus differs from two dominant theories of universalizing paths of development at this conference:
A welfare state regime is at the most general level an institutional matrix of market, state and family forms, which generates welfare outcomes.
Huge debates. Modify to include:
Yes, a powerful framework for studying social policy in development contexts:
But needs radical modification:
1) Actual or potential welfare state regimes: high state commitments + relatively high welfare outcomes. Much of Central Europe (with some representatives in Eastern Europe); the southern cone of Latin America; Kenya, Algeria and Tunisia in Africa, and Thailand.
2) More effective informal security regimes: relatively good outcomes but below-average state spending and low international flows. Parts of Southeast Asia (probably including China), Sri Lanka, the remaining countries of Latin America for which we have data, together with parts of the Middle East.
3) Less effective informal security regimes: poor levels of welfare, low public commitments and moderate international inflows. South Asia (excluding Sri Lanka but probably including India) and certain countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
4) Externally dependent insecurity regimes: heavily dependent on aid and/or remittances with very poor welfare outcomes. The bulk of sub-Saharan Africa for which we have data.
Productivist welfare regimes: