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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. History 103 The West and the World. Focus Questions. Why was Great Britain the first state to have an Industrial Revolution? What were the basic features of the new industrial system created by the Industrial Revolution?

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the industrial revolution
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

History 103The West and the World

focus questions
Focus Questions
  • Why was Great Britain the first state to have an Industrial Revolution? What were the basic features of the new industrial system created by the Industrial Revolution?
  • What role did government and trade unions play in the industrial development of the Western world? Who helped the workers the most?
economic liberalism
ECONOMIC LIBERALISM
  • Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776
    • Laissez-faire economics
    • “Hidden hand”
  • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), Essay on the Principles of Population
    • Geometric Growth of Population
    • Arithmetic Growth of Food Supply
  • David Ricardo (1772-1823), Principles of Political Economy
    • “Iron Law of Wages”
economic transformation
ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION

Agricultural Revolution of 18th Century

  • Introduction of New Crops
      • Legumes, turnips, clover, potatoes
      • Scientific Livestock Breeding
      • Enclosure System
economic transformation5
ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION
  • Rapid Population Growth in 18th Century
  • 1700-1800:110 million to 190 million
  • Better health practices
    • Smallpox Inoculation
    • Sanitation
industrial revolution
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Increased Demand for goods
  • Investment Capital
  • Cheap Labor
  • Inventions
    • Flying Shuttle
    • Cotton Gin
    • Spinning Jenny
    • Power Loom
    • Steam Engine
role of technology
Role of Technology
  • Cotton and the spinning jenny
  • Cotton gin (Eli Whitney, 1793)
industrial revolution9
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Some Statistics
    • 1760: Britain Imports 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton; mostly processed by hand in cottage system
    • 1787: Britain Imports 22 million pounds of raw cotton; mostly processed by machines and water power
    • 1840: Britain Imports 366 million tons; mostly processed in factories by steam power
industrial revolution10
Improved Transportation

Canals

Railroads

Iron Production

Factory System

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
role of technology iron and steam
Role of technology: Iron and steam
  • Iron smelting – coke
  • 1780s – high quality iron (ships, weapons, rails and nails)
  • Steam engine (James Watt, 1736-1819)
  • 1782 – rotary engine
role of technology railroad
Role of Technology: railroad
  • Rocket
  • Liverpool to Manchester line (1830)
  • 20 years: 50 mph, 2,000 miles of tracks
  • effects
industrial revolution15
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • More Statistics
    • 1800: Steam engines generating 10,000 horsepower
    • 1850: 500,000 horsepower stationary engines; 790,000 horsepower in mobile engines
spread of industrial revolution17
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Great Britain
  • Northern Germany
  • Netherlands
  • Northeastern France
urbanization
Urbanization
  • Significant Population Growth
  • Move to the cities--shift of orientation from countryside to city.
  • Housing, public health, crime, sanitation
  • Poor working conditions
  • Child labor; female labor
social impacts new social classes
Social Impacts: new social classes
  • Working class
  • Child and female labor
  • Working conditions
social and political impacts middle entrepreneurial and business classes
Social and political impacts: middle, entrepreneurial and business classes
  • Concept of “middle class”
  • New business aristocracy
class consciousness
Class Consciousness
  • Middle Class—bourgeoisie
  • Working Class—proletariat
  • Peasant
  • Landed Gentry—old aristocracy
social and political impacts reforms regulations and labor organizations
Social and political impacts: reforms, regulations and labor organizations
  • Cotton factories Regulation Act (1819)
  • MP Sadler and the Factory Act (1833)
  • Ashley and the Mines Act (1842)
  • Unions, 1824
  • Grand National Consolidated Trade Unions, 1834
socialism
Socialism
  • Utopian Socialism
    • Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
    • Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
    • Robert Owen (1771-1858)
  • Scientific Socialism
    • Karl Marx (1818-1883)
      • Communist Manifesto (1848)
      • Das Kapital
    • Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
communism
Communism
  • Economics as the Foundation
  • Mode of Production
  • “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle.”
  • Theory of “surplus value.”
  • Dialectical Materialism
  • Mode of Production and material conditions drive ideas
  • Violent Revolution as inevitable
  • Classless Society -- bourgeois state will “wither away.”
conclusions and consequences new kind of economy
Conclusions and Consequences: New kind of economy
  • Continuous, rapid, self-sustaining economic growth came to be seen as fundamental characteristic of new economy