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The Effect of Student Mobility on School Achievement:. A Study of the South Bend Community School Corporation. Part 1: What we know about student mobility from previous research. Nick Deprey Joseph Ruffini Andrew Marchese. Introduction. What is student mobility?

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The effect of student mobility on school achievement l.jpg

The Effect of Student Mobility on School Achievement:

A Study of the South Bend Community School Corporation


Part 1 what we know about student mobility from previous research l.jpg

Part 1: What we know about student mobility from previous research

Nick Deprey

Joseph Ruffini

Andrew Marchese


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Introduction research

  • What is student mobility?

  • How much school switching goes on?

  • Why do students change schools?

  • Which students move the most?

  • Why school switching matter?

    • For students

    • For Schools

  • What can schools do to reduce student mobility? To mitigate the consequences of mobility?


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What is Student Mobility? research

  • Students making non-promotional school changes

    • Can occur during the school year or between school years

    • Can move to a school in same district or outside the district

    • Can occur more than once a year


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How much school researchswitching goes on?

  • In 1998, NAEP study showed

    • 34% of 4th graders

    • 21% of 8th graders

    • 10% of 12th graders

      changed schools at least once in previous two years.

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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Which students move the most? research

  • Among 4th graders,the NAEP study showed that over a 2 yr period. . .

    • 45 % of Black

    • 41 % of Hispanic

    • 27% of White

    • 33% of Asian American

      . . . students changed schools

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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Which students move the most? research

  • Low-income students

    • 43% of 4th graders eligible for national school lunch

  • Living in single parent, mother-only families

    • 40% of all students moving 3 or 4 times over two years

Sources: Rumberger, 2003; Kerbow, 1996.


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Which students move the most? research

by type of school district. . .

  • Large, predominantly minority, urban school districts

  • 30-40% of students enroll for less than the school year

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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Which students move the most? research

overall. . .

  • More students make nonpromotional changes during their elementary and secondary school careers than stay in a single elementary, middle, and high school

  • Changing school is

    • the norm for elementary students

    • an exception for high school students

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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Why do students change schools? research

  • Changing residences (70% of moves for 8-12th graders)

    • Evictions

    • Changes in family composition

      • Splits

      • marriages

  • School orders move for disciplinary reasons

  • To experience more diversity

  • To avoid problematic environment

  • To attend a better school

Source: Kerbow, 1996


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Why does Mobility Matter? research

Consequences. ..

  • For Students switching schools

    • Lower Achievement

    • More Behavioral Problems

    • Higher Drop-out Rates

  • For classrooms

  • For students who stay

  • For schools


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Lower Achievement for Movers research

  • On average, changing schools lowered GPA (measured on a 4.0 scale) by

    • .163 points for Black students

    • .541 points for Hispanic students

  • Students who switch schools also were 35% more likely to have failed a grade

Source: Felner, Ginter and Primavera, 1981

The Journal of the American Medical Association


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Behavioral Problems for Movers research

  • After controlling for socioeconomic differences,

    • 77% of school switchers are reported to have behavioral problems

  • Behavioral problems increase with the number of school changes

Source: Tucker, Marx, and Long, 1998

The Journal of the American Medical Association


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Higher Dropout Rates for Movers research

  • Students switching schools early are more likely to drop out before graduating high school

    • 1 out of every 4 eighth graders switching schools drops-out

Source: Swanson and Schneider, 1999;

Rumberger and Larson


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Consequences for Stayers research

  • The stable core

    • percent of students who remain at a school from one year to the next

    • In a typical Chicago elementary school, 46% or students who entered in kindergarten are present for the first day of 4th grade

Source: Kerbow, 1996


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Consequences for Stayers research

  • Mobility creates Chaos Factor in classrooms

    • Instructional routines disrupted

    • Pace of instruction slows

    • Curriculum design driven by needs of movers

    • Administrative resources diverted to incorporating new students

    • Teacher morale falls

    • Sense of community fractured

  • Stayers suffer academically (lower scores)

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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Consequences for Schools research

  • School test scores fall

  • Ability to evaluate instructional quality clouded

  • Schools held accountable for students who may have been elsewhere for a significant portion of the school year

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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What can schools do to reduce student mobility? research

  • Educate students/parents about the consequences of moving

  • Assess past enrollment history to identify frequent movers and target them

  • Problem solve so that students can remain

Source: Rumberger, 2003


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What can schools do to reduce student mobility? research

  • Work with community agencies to reduce need for residential moves

    • Review timing of housing subsidy payments

    • Work with local

    • reality association

    • Coordinate foster home placements

  • Build school identity and student loyalty

Source: Schuler, 1990


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What can schools do to mitigate the consequences of mobility?

  • Schools and teachers should:

    • Prepare in advance for new students

    • Facilitate transition as soon as new students arrive

    • Establish ongoing procedures and practices to address new students’ needs

Source:Rumberger (2003)


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Bibliography mobility?

Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Dauber ( 1994). “Children in Motion: School Transfers and Elementary School Performance.” Paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, Los Angeles, CA.

Felner, R., Primavera J., & Cauce, A. (1981) . “The Impact of School Transitions: A Focus for Preventive Efforts.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 449-459.

Kerbow, David. (1996) “Patterns of Urban Student Mobility and Local School Reform.” Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, I(2), 147-169.

Lash, Andrea and Sandra Kirkpatrick (1990). “A Classroom Perspective on Student Mobility.” Elementary School Journal, 91, 177-191.


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Bibliography, cont. mobility?

Rumberger, R. (2003). “The Causes and Consequences of Student Mobility,” Journal of Negro Education, Vo. 72, No. 1 (Winter), 6-20.

Rumberger R. & Larson, K. (1998). “Student Mobility and the Increased Risk of High School Dropout.” American Journal of Education, 107, 1-35.

Schuler,D. (1990). “Effects of Family Mobility on Student Achievement, ERS Spectrum, Vol. 8, No. 4, 17-24.

Swanson, C. & Schneider, B. (1999) “Students on the Move: Residential and Educational Mobility in America’s Schools.” Sociology of Education, 72, 54-67.


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Bibliography, cont. mobility?

Tucker,Jack, Jonathan Marx, and Larry Long. (1998) “Moving On: Residential Mobility and Children’s School Lives.” Sociology of Education, 71, 111-129.

Wood, D., Halfon, N., Scarla, D., Newacheck, P., & Nessim, S. (1993). “The Impact of Family Relocation on Children’s Growth, Development, School Function, and Behavior. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1334-1338.


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Part 2: Mobility and ISTEP scores across Indiana mobility?

Ben Clarke &

Claire Smither


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Our Project mobility?

  • Looked at Student Mobility throughout Indiana

  • At the Corporation Level (n=316)


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Data mobility?

  • Student Migration

    • Over-counting

    • Under-counting

  • Annual Performance Reports

    • Just right


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Equation mobility?

PCTmORe = β0 +β1INTRA +β2INTER +β3ELLpct +β4ATTNpct +β5STratio + β6SPEDpct +β7ENROLL +β8ENROLLminPCT +β9FREELUNCHpct +β10PPE + β11metro +β12town + β13rural +e


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Dependent Variables mobility?

  • (1) “PCTmORe,” is the percentage of students passing either the math or English sections

  • (2) “PCTmath,” is the percentage of students passing the math section, independent of their English score

  • (3) “PCTenglish,” is the percentage of students passing the English section, independent of their math score

  • (4) “PCTm&e,” is the percentage of students passing both the math and English sections



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Results mobility?


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Main Findings mobility?

  • Excluding the demographic variables, INTRA and INTER are the largest negative influences of ISTEP score

  • INTER and INTRA are significant in 7 out of 8 estimates

  • ATTN is a big, significant, positive factor in ISTEP scores


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What does this mean mobility?for Indiana?

For a given corporation, if the INTRA mobility rate decreases by one percentage point (from 17.4 to 16.4), the ISTEP pass rate should increase by .84 percentage points (from 60 to 60.84).


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Part 3: Mobility & ISTEP scores mobility? in the SBCSC

Cole Davis,

Karen Stockley, &

Ann Walter


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Mobility mobility?

  • Two types of school switching

    • within a school system (intra)

    • into a different school district (inter)

  • How does it affect SBCSC?

    • Intra: 15.0%

    • Inter: 7.7%

    • Total: 22.7%

  • Adequate Yearly Progress

    • http://mustang.doe.state.in.us/AP/buttoncorp.cfm?corp=7205&year=2006


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Int mobility?ra District MobilitySBCSC, 2005-06*

*Moves between schools involving less than five students are not recorded


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Int mobility?ra District Mobility Rates (%)SBCSC, 2005-06*

*Moves between schools involving less than five students are not recorded


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Mobility Findings mobility?

  • Primary school students are most likely to switch schools (1 in 5)

  • Intermediate students rank second (1 in 6)

  • high school students least likely to move (1 in 14)


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Int mobility?er District Mobility SBCSC, 2005-06*

*Moves between schools involving less than ten students are not recorded


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Int mobility?ra + Inter District Mobility,SBCSC, 2005-06


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Intra mobility?vs. Inter District MobilitySBCSC, 2005-06

  • Predominance of school switching is internal

    • Changes within the district occur almost twice as often and changes involving schools outside the district.


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Regression Analysis mobility?

  • Data Sources

    • http://mustang.doe.state.in.us/SAS/sas1.cfmand http://mustang.doe.state.in.us/SEARCH/snapcorp.cfm?corp=7205

  • School Level Data

  • 4 years (2004-2007)

  • 32 primary schools


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Definition of key variables mobility?

  • Stability index: the average across students of the portion of the school year each student is enrolled in a particular school (hypothetical range is 0 to 100%)

  • ISTEP passing rates for math only and English only


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ISTEP pass rates in 3 mobility?rd grade Math vs Stability Index


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ISTEP pass rates in 3 mobility?rd grade English vs Stability Index


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Our Model mobility?

  • Variables of Interest

    • ISTEP pass rates, Stability Index

  • Control Variables

    • Student variables

      • attendance rate, race, percent free lunch, percent limited English

    • School Variables

      • teacher experience, suspensions, expulsions


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Results mobility?

  • Stability index is insignificant

  • Significant variables

    • Percent free lunch

    • Dummy variables for 2005, 2006, 2007

  • R2 = .52 (math) and .56(english)


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Implications mobility?

  • Can’t prove that mobility is significant

  • Data limitations

    • Problems with mobility measure

      • Cannot follow movements of individual students

      • Limited to one move per child

      • Cannot determine timing of move

      • No moves recorded for school when 4 or fewer children move in or out

    • Missing important variables

    • More years of data needed


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More research is needed mobility?

  • Focus on individual children, not schools

  • Collect and analyze data that correct for limitations

  • Identify frequent movers and track their movement

  • Estimate the cost of open enrollment for mobile children

  • Follow a core of stable students






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Part 4: Proposals for SBCSC mobility?

Sam MacDonald &

Mary Kate Sweeney


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Mobility Focus Group mobility?

  • Met with curriculum leaders on October 5, 2007

  • Shared anecdotes about experiences with mobility in SBCSC

  • Made recommendations for dealing with mobility issues


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Temporary movement to native country mobility?

Eviction

Family issues

Change of foster homes

Move between guardians

Unhappy custodial agreements

Family member incarcerated

New family formation

Parents are angry at the school

Possibility that the child may be tested

Escape from bad neighborhoods

Move for diversity

Leaving public school for home school

Causes of Mobility in South Bend


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Surprises mobility?

  • No standardized way of changing schools within the corporation

  • No standard way of welcoming new students

    • Pearly has Resource and Parent Rooms

  • Transfer of records is not systematic

  • No attempt to educate parents about the costs of mobility

  • No systemic recording of mobility


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Recommendations mobility?

  • Keep child in the same school for at least an entire school year

  • Provide options to families to prevent change of schools

  • Get the whole community to help

    • ie: the Mayor; Casie Center

  • Provide transportation no matter where the students live


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Casie Center mobility?

  • Elementary School Truancy Prevention Program

  • Work with the schools

    • Student tracking

    • Folder of information

    • Truancy prevention specialist

    • 6th grade

    • Middle schools

  • School Switching

  • Testimonies


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Parent Questionnaires mobility?

  • Aim is to provide the SBCSC with data on mobility

  • An addition to the withdraw and registration paperwork

  • Parents fill them out when withdrawing and reenrolling child

  • Design incorporates information from the focus group meeting


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Withdrawal Questionnaire mobility?

  • Track movement within SBCSC and to other school corporations

  • Time frame for reenrollment

  • Frequency of mobility

  • Problems child has experienced due to change of school

  • Reasons for withdrawal

  • Ways SBCSC can assist the parent

  • Desire to stay in current school

  • Need for transportation


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Registration Questionnaire mobility?

  • Child’s previous school

  • Time lapsed since withdrawal

  • Frequency of school changes

  • Problems child has experienced due to change of school

  • Reason for mobility

  • Ways SBCSC can assist the parent

  • Desire to stay at previous school

  • Need for transportation to previous school


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Information Pamphlet for Parents mobility?

  • Changing schools?...Some things to think about


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Part 5: Migration from Illinois mobility?

Nick DePrey &

Andrew Marchese


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Cost of Living Analysis mobility?

  • Cost of living index: 4th quarter 2005


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Cost of Living Analysis mobility?

  • Comparisons:

    • If you live in Joliet and you have a $10,000 consumption bundle, to consume the same bundle, you need…

    • South Bend is not only a much cheaper city to live in than south Chicago, it is the cheapest of all the nearby metropolises


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Analysis of TANF Grants mobility?

  • Illinois

    • 2006 estimate: 1.48 million people living in poverty, 12.0%

    • June 2007:

      • 32,000 families received TANF cash grants, 77,000 total persons

      • Average per case cash grant: $239/month, $2868/year

      • Average per person grant: $99/month

      • Total grants: roughly $7.6 million

    • In 2006 only 18.1% of all residents eligible for TANF received it

    • TANF participation steadily declined in Illinois since 2000 while poverty rates, and food stamp and family health plan participation rates have risen.


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Analysis of TANF Grants mobility?

  • Indiana

    • June 2007:

      • 38,000 families received TANF, 103,618 total recipients

      • Total grants: $7,904,857

      • Average grants: $204.47/month, $2453.64/yr

      • Average grant per person: $76.29

  • Incentive to move to Indiana: direct cash grants are more readily available


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Questions? mobility?