English 102. Review of Character in Short Stories. Methods of characterization. Direct: Expository Explicit. Indirect: Dramatic Implicit. Most often used. Principles of Characterization. Consistency. Motivation. Plausibility. Types of Characters. Round. Flat. Stock.
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Review of Character in Short Stories
Most often used
Static:The character is the same at the end of the story as he or she is at the beginning.
Developing or Dynamic:
The character undergoes a permanent change in character, personality, or outlook.
Often provides a clue to the story’s meaning, or theme
VERBAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN WHAT IS SAID AND WHAT IS MEANT.
DRAMATIC IRONY: THE CONTRAST IS BETWEEN WHAT A CHARACTER SAYS AND WHAT THE READER KNOWS TO BE TRUE.
SITUATIONAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY, BETWEEN EXPECTATION AND FULFILLMENT, BETWEEN WHAT IS AND WHAT WOULD SEEM APPROPRIATE.
Mother and Maggie
Self posturing / artificiality
Authentic relationship to a heritage of things made for “everyday use”
The beauty of useful objects
The virtue of craftmanship
“Everyday Use” : Theme
A person whose honesty and tolerance have long made her susceptible to the strong will of another may reach a point where she will exert her own will for the sake of justice.
Ingrained habits may be given up if justice makes a greater demand.
Climax, pars. 11-16
Fantasy world punctured
1. Presentation of
Ends Par. 18
Denouement / Resolution
Theme for “Miss Brill” Story and Structure, p. 136
Isolated elderly people, unsupported by a network of family and friends, may make a satisfying adjustment through a pleasant fantasy life, but when their fantasy is punctured by the cold claw of reality, the effect can be devastating.
Tub vs Kenny and Frank, from pars 18 through 50
This is when Kenny enters the farmhouse
Hint of shift in allegiance at par 57
par 70, Frank “[turns] away.”
Climax at par 80 . . . Tub shoots Kenny
pars 131 to 139 Tub confronts Frank;
Frank says “I’m sorry.”
pars 145 to 239, Tub and Frank vs Kenny, which
includes the “enabling” scene, from pars 224 to 230
Some human beings, especially when isolated in a natural, bleak setting, may shed their socially constructed humane traits and become as primitive and predatory as the most unevolved natural creatures, forming symbiotic alliances--devoid of charity or love-- purely to further their own gains.