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English 102. Review of Character in Short Stories. Methods of characterization. Direct: Expository Explicit. Indirect: Dramatic Implicit. Most often used. Principles of Characterization. Consistency. Motivation. Plausibility. Types of Characters. Round. Flat. Stock.

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English 102

Review of Character in Short Stories


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Methods of characterization

Direct:

Expository

Explicit

Indirect:

Dramatic

Implicit

Most often used


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Principles of Characterization

Consistency

Motivation

Plausibility


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Types of Characters

Round

Flat

Stock

interchangeable


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Degree of Change

Static:The character is the same at the end of the story as he or she is at the beginning.

Developing or Dynamic:

The character undergoes a permanent change in character, personality, or outlook.

Often provides a clue to the story’s meaning, or theme


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Irony in Fiction

VERBAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN WHAT IS SAID AND WHAT IS MEANT.

DRAMATIC IRONY: THE CONTRAST IS BETWEEN WHAT A CHARACTER SAYS AND WHAT THE READER KNOWS TO BE TRUE.

SITUATIONAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY, BETWEEN EXPECTATION AND FULFILLMENT, BETWEEN WHAT IS AND WHAT WOULD SEEM APPROPRIATE.


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Alice Walker

Born 1944

Biography


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“Heritage”

Protagonist

Antagonist

Mother and Maggie

Dee/ Wangero

Honestyand Integrity

Self posturing / artificiality

Self-Sacrifice

Rapacity

Authentic relationship to a heritage of things made for “everyday use”

Ethnic Pretentiousness


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The quilts symbolize the following:

Inherited values

Family attachments

Independence

Self-reliance

The beauty of useful objects

The virtue of craftmanship


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Everyday Use” : Theme

A person whose honesty and tolerance have long made her susceptible to the strong will of another may reach a point where she will exert her own will for the sake of justice.

P. 135

Ingrained habits may be given up if justice makes a greater demand.

P. 135


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Katherine Mansfield

1888-1923

Biography


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“Miss Brill” Plot Structure

Climax, pars. 11-16

Fantasy world punctured

Rising action,

10 paragraphs

Falling action,

2 paragraphs

1. Presentation of

her character

2. Mood

Fantasy world

Ends Par. 18

Exposition

Denouement / Resolution


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Theme for “Miss Brill” Story and Structure, p. 136

Isolated elderly people, unsupported by a network of family and friends, may make a satisfying adjustment through a pleasant fantasy life, but when their fantasy is punctured by the cold claw of reality, the effect can be devastating.


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Tobias Woolf

Born 1945

Interview


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“Hunters in the Snow” portrays shifting alliances

Tub vs Kenny and Frank, from pars 18 through 50

This is when Kenny enters the farmhouse

Hint of shift in allegiance at par 57

par 70, Frank “[turns] away.”

Climax at par 80 . . . Tub shoots Kenny

pars 131 to 139 Tub confronts Frank;

Frank says “I’m sorry.”

pars 145 to 239, Tub and Frank vs Kenny, which

includes the “enabling” scene, from pars 224 to 230


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Theme for “Hunters in the Snow

Some human beings, especially when isolated in a natural, bleak setting, may shed their socially constructed humane traits and become as primitive and predatory as the most unevolved natural creatures, forming symbiotic alliances--devoid of charity or love-- purely to further their own gains.



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Chapter 3: Character

Katherine Mansfield

Tobias Woolf

Alice Walker

Born 1944

1888-1923

Born 1945

Biography

Interview

Biography