English 102 Review of Character in Short Stories
Methods of characterization Direct: Expository Explicit Indirect: Dramatic Implicit Most often used
Principles of Characterization Consistency Motivation Plausibility
Types of Characters Round Flat Stock interchangeable
Degree of Change Static:The character is the same at the end of the story as he or she is at the beginning. Developing or Dynamic: The character undergoes a permanent change in character, personality, or outlook. Often provides a clue to the story’s meaning, or theme
Irony in Fiction VERBAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN WHAT IS SAID AND WHAT IS MEANT. DRAMATIC IRONY: THE CONTRAST IS BETWEEN WHAT A CHARACTER SAYS AND WHAT THE READER KNOWS TO BE TRUE. SITUATIONAL IRONY: THE DISCREPANCY IS BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY, BETWEEN EXPECTATION AND FULFILLMENT, BETWEEN WHAT IS AND WHAT WOULD SEEM APPROPRIATE.
Alice Walker Born 1944 Biography
“Heritage” Protagonist Antagonist Mother and Maggie Dee/ Wangero Honestyand Integrity Self posturing / artificiality Self-Sacrifice Rapacity Authentic relationship to a heritage of things made for “everyday use” Ethnic Pretentiousness
The quilts symbolize the following: Inherited values Family attachments Independence Self-reliance The beauty of useful objects The virtue of craftmanship
“Everyday Use” : Theme A person whose honesty and tolerance have long made her susceptible to the strong will of another may reach a point where she will exert her own will for the sake of justice. P. 135 Ingrained habits may be given up if justice makes a greater demand. P. 135
Katherine Mansfield 1888-1923 Biography
“Miss Brill” Plot Structure Climax, pars. 11-16 Fantasy world punctured Rising action, 10 paragraphs Falling action, 2 paragraphs 1. Presentation of her character 2. Mood Fantasy world Ends Par. 18 Exposition Denouement / Resolution
Theme for “Miss Brill” Story and Structure, p. 136 Isolated elderly people, unsupported by a network of family and friends, may make a satisfying adjustment through a pleasant fantasy life, but when their fantasy is punctured by the cold claw of reality, the effect can be devastating.
Tobias Woolf Born 1945 Interview
“Hunters in the Snow” portrays shifting alliances Tub vs Kenny and Frank, from pars 18 through 50 This is when Kenny enters the farmhouse Hint of shift in allegiance at par 57 par 70, Frank “[turns] away.” Climax at par 80 . . . Tub shoots Kenny pars 131 to 139 Tub confronts Frank; Frank says “I’m sorry.” pars 145 to 239, Tub and Frank vs Kenny, which includes the “enabling” scene, from pars 224 to 230
Theme for “Hunters in the Snow Some human beings, especially when isolated in a natural, bleak setting, may shed their socially constructed humane traits and become as primitive and predatory as the most unevolved natural creatures, forming symbiotic alliances--devoid of charity or love-- purely to further their own gains.
Chapter 3: Character Katherine Mansfield Tobias Woolf Alice Walker Born 1944 1888-1923 Born 1945 Biography Interview Biography