A Lecture for theSixth Northeast Asia Management and Economy Joint ConferenceGwangju Kimdaejung Convention Center May 30, 2007Linguistic Auditing and EIL for East Asian Tourist IndustryJudy YoneokaKumamoto Gakuen UniversityEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org 1
Topics of Presentation １．The linguistic landscape of East Asia ２．International tourism in East Asia ３．An overview of Linguistic auditing ４．Focus on Kumamoto: Linguistic Auditing to assess present and future needs
East Asia Japan Map from Fauser, 2007 presentation
The OTHER regionallanguage: 漢字 Advantageｓ: Chinese characters are widely recognized Meanings are (generally) understood 山、川、道、路 Disadvantages: Which characters? 勞 or 労？ 運転手 How to pronounce?
2. International Tourism in East Asia • In 2004, China received 109 million visitors from overseas, 60 times that of 1978. • Recently, TTG Asia cited China as the 2004 best travel destination in the world.http://www.china.org.cn/english/travel/126448.htm • In 2006 international tourists to Japan were 7,334 thousand PAX, up 9.0% compared with last year, and renewing the record high.http://www.tourism.jp/english/statistics/inbound/ • The number of Koreans travelling abroad passed the 10 million mark for the first time in 2005, growing at a rate of 14.2% for the year.http://www.airhighways.com/korea.htm
EIL ＬＯＴＥ OLＩＬ Proficiency in International Languages Needed in Tourist Industry EIL = English as an International LanguageLOTE = Languages other than EILOLIL = Own language as an International Language EIL Based on Honna, 2007 presentation
English as an East Asian Tourist Language？ • In all, English remains a traveller's most useful language overall, although for longer stays in any East Asian country picking up at least some of the local language is essential. When looking for English speakers, tourist areas tend to be a good bet and in general younger people or those around universities are most likely to speak at least some English. That being said, there are many areas where no English is spoken so patience and a good phrasebook are always a safe bet. http://wikitravel.org/en/East_Asia
What is linguistic auditing and how can it help? • Began in Europe • Helps businesses realize their language goals • Uses an assessment method based on structured tests and face-to-face interviews • Gives advice on appropriate training solutions • Analyzes specific objectives and requirements • ...SAVES • time • money • unnecessary language training http://www.modulor.us/language_audits/en
Needs Assessment • Actual and immediate needs (= What does the company need to do in another language now? ) By questionnaire to Kumamoto hotels and actual tourists • Hidden and potential needs (= What could the company do in another language to be more successful and profitable?) By questionnaire to potential Korean tourists
Evaluating responses • 1. How prepared is the hotel to meet their linguistic needs? • 2. What is the best way to meet their needs? (translation resources, language services, tailored ESP courses etc.) • 3. What resources do they already have? (human, machine, community, finance) • 4. What is the hotel doing already?
Focus on Linguistic Auditing in Kumamoto • 1. Kumamoto as a tourist town • In 2003, Kumamoto declared itself a tourist town • 3-year plan (2005-2007) to develop tourism • 400 year anniversary of Kumamoto Castle • 2. Kumamoto as the heart of Kyushu • Kyushu Bullet Train to be completed in 2012 • 3. Kumamoto as an international town • UD and the 4-language plan
Increase of Korean Tourists in Japan/Kumamoto Unit = 1,000
Needs Assessment: Language Needs of Korean Travelers to Kumamoto 135 respondents across Korea Age breakdown; 19-24 32% 25-29 44% 30-39 12% 40-49 9% 50- 3%
Do you want to visit Japan (again)? Have you been to Japan? • 60% of Koreans surveyed have been to Japan, and almost all (96%) would like to go (again). • Only 13% of Korean visitors have been to Kyushu, whereas 23% indicated they would like to go to Kyushu (again).
What do you like to do/see most when traveling? • History, local food and nature rated highest. • Shopping rated only 6%.
How do you like to travel? • However, most Korean travelers to Kumamoto come on tours!
How is your language ability? Note the inverse trends: • Most people rated themselves as fair or poor at English • Most people rated themselves as good or none at Japanese
Fig. 8 What language(s) do you plan/expect to use in Japan? Fig. 9 Do you plan/expect to use English in Japan?
If Korean/English were used in advertising/menus, would you be more likely to use the business? • Advertising/literature in Korean is a key factor for over 85% of Korean tourists, but advertising in English “will do” for over half of the potential visitors.
The Questionnaire • Mailed to 60 hotels in Kumamoto in October 2006 • All hotels had presence on at least one international hotel website • 17 hotels responded • Response rate = 28%
RESULTS 1: Number and type of foreign guests per month 3 general groups: 1-9 8 hotels 47% 10-50 5 hotels 29% 51-1600(!) 4 hotels 24% More Western (65-90%) 5 hotels29% Half and half （50％） 4 hotels24% Less Western (0-49%) 8 hotels47%
HOTEL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 TOTAL % Korean 1120 89 4.9 89 1.8 0 0.6 0.8 5 0.4 0.1 3.6 10 2.5 4 2 1334 59% Chinese 480 0.9 69 41 1.8 0.5 0.6 0 0 0.2 0.6 3.6 10 2.5 3 4 618 27% Western 0 0 20 210 0.5 2 0.8 0.8 5 1.4 1.2 0.8 16 5 3 14 280 12% Other 0 0 4.9 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0 4 0 0 0 45.7 2% Number of guests per hotel by nationality Compared with percentage of tourists who stay in Kumamoto (2005 data)
Languages used with Foreign guests with Westerners Other: Gestures 20%
Linguistic Preparedness of Hotels (上＝spoken, 下 = written) 82% 59-65% 47% 70-76%
CONCLUSIONS… Speaking English is important, And useful for MANY but not ALL tourists But to really promote tourism in Kumamoto Use more Korean and Chinese
and DIRECTIONS… Or at least write in romaji and kanji as much as possible…
…and Dreams:The Kumamoto Welcome Card kumamoto kumamoto
Thank you for your hospitality, and please come to visit us soon! • For a copy of this handout, please visit www2.kumagaku.ac.jp/teacher/~judy/