NATS 101 Lecture 3 Climate and Weather - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NATS 101 Lecture 3 Climate and Weather

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  1. NATS 101Lecture 3Climate and Weather

  2. Climate and Weather “Climate is what you expect. Weather is what you get.” -Robert A. Heinlein

  3. Weather – The state of the atmosphere: for a specific place at a particular time Weather Elements 1) Temperature 2) Pressure 3) Humidity 4) Wind 5) Visibility 6) Clouds 7) Significant Weather Weather

  4. Surface Station Model Responsible for boxed parameters Temperatures Plotted F in U.S. Sea Level Pressure Leading 10 or 9 is not plotted Examples: 1013.8 plotted as 138 998.7 plotted as 987 1036.0 plotted as 360 Ahrens, p 431

  5. Sky Cover and Weather Symbols Ahrens, p 431 Ahrens, p 431

  6. Wind Barbs Direction Wind is going towards Westerly from the West Speed (accumulated) Each flag is 50 knots Each full barb is 10 knots Each half barb is 5 knots 65 kts from west Ahrens, p 432

  7. SLP pressure temperature dew point cloud cover Ohio State website wind

  8. 72 111 58 Decimal point What are Temp, Dew Point, SLP, Cloud Cover, Wind Speed and Direction? Ahrens, p 431 Practice Surface Station Temperate (oF) Pressure (mb) Last Three Digits (tens, ones, tenths) Dew Point (later) Moisture Wind Barb Direction and Speed Cloud Cover Tenths total coverage

  9. 42 998 18 Decimal point What are Temp, Dew Point, SLP, Cloud Cover, Wind Speed and Direction? Ahrens, p 431 Practice Surface Station Sea Level Pressure Leading 10 or 9 is not plotted Examples: 1013.8 plotted as 138 998.7 plotted as 987 1036.0 plotted as 360

  10. Surface Map Symbols • Fronts Mark the boundary between different air masses…later Significant weather occurs near fronts Current US Map Ahrens, p 432

  11. Radiosonde Weather balloons, or radiosondes, sample atmospheric to 10 mb. They measuretemperature moisture pressure They are tracked to getwinds Ahrens, Fig. 1

  12. Radiosonde Distribution Radiosondes released at 0000 and at 1200 GMT for a global network of stations. Large gaps in network over oceans and in less affluent nations. Stations ~400 km apart over North America

  13. Radiosonde for Tucson stratosphere Example of data taken by weather balloon released over Tucson Temperature (red) Moisture (green) Winds (white) Note variations of all fields with height UA Tucson 1200 RAOB tropopause troposphere temperature profile moisture profile wind profile

  14. Climate Climate - Average weather and range of weather, computed over many years. Whole year (mean annual precipitation for Tucson, 1970-present) Season (Winter: Dec-Jan-Feb) Month (January rainfall in Tucson) Date (Average, record high and low temperatures for Jan 1 in Tucson)

  15. Climate of TucsonMonthly Averages Individual months can show significant deviations from long-term, monthly means.

  16. Average and Record MAX and MIN Temperatures for Date

  17. Climate of TucsonProbability of Last Freeze Cool Site:Western Region Climate Center

  18. Climate of TucsonProbability of Rain Cool Site:Western Region Climate Center

  19. Climate of TucsonExtreme Rainfall Cool Site:Western Region Climate Center

  20. Climate of TucsonSnow! Cool Site:Western Region Climate Center

  21. Summary • Weather - atmospheric conditions at specific time and place Weather Maps  Instantaneous Values • Climate - average weather and the range of extremes compiled over many years Statistical Quantities  Expected Values

  22. Reading Assignment • Ahrens Pages 25-30 Problems 2.1-2.4 (2.1  Chapter 2, Problem 1) • Don’t Forgot the 4”x 6” Index Cards…