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HUMAN EVOLUTION Key Vocabulary Anthropoids – subgroup of primates Hominin (Hominid) – Paleoanthropology – Bipedal Brachiate What does it mean to be human? Bipedal Larger brain (capable of language and symbolic thought) Also: Reduced jawbones Shorter digestive tract

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Presentation Transcript
key vocabulary
Key Vocabulary
  • Anthropoids – subgroup of primates
  • Hominin (Hominid) –
  • Paleoanthropology –
  • Bipedal
  • Brachiate
what does it mean to be human
What does it mean to be human?
  • Bipedal
  • Larger brain (capable of language and symbolic thought)Also:
  • Reduced jawbones
  • Shorter digestive tract
how determine bipedalism
How determine Bipedalism?
  • Study of skulls

 position of foramenmagnum

slide5

How determine Bipedalism?

  • Study of vertebral column: have arched rather than straight spines
  • Study of pelvic bones

Note:Teeth and jaws - rounded rather than rectangular jaws

how determine symbolic thought
How determine symbolic thought?
  • Artifacts  tools, and …..….
ideas to forget
Ideas to forget!

Our biases include:

  • Thinking that complex brain arose before bipedalism
  • That “we’re it” with respect to humanityFacts:
  • Bipedalism appeared first
  • Several species of humans have existed; many co-existed (Note: Greek Mytholgy!)
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3. Anthropoids – monkeys and apes

a. New World monkeys – prehensile tails; nostrils on sides

b. Old world monkeys – lack a prehensile tail; nostrils point downward

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c. Extant non-human groups of apes

gibbon

orangutan

gorilla

chimpanzee

2 australopithecines genus australopithecus
2. Australopithecines(genus Australopithecus)
  • Lived in Africa 4.2 - 1.5 mya
  • ~ 3 feet (1m) tall
  • Fully bipedal!
  • Some finds……
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a. Australopithecus afarensis(Lucy!) - 3.2 mya

(1) Discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia (1974)

(2) 40% complete!

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4. Another lineage of australopiths - robust australopiths (Genus Paranthropus)

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Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) – site of the discovery of Paranthropus boisei by Richard Leakey

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IV. Genus Homo – the human line

A. Homo habilis (handy man) 2.4 – 1.6 mya

1. Had a large brain 2. Used stone tools

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B. Homo ergaster – 1.9- 1.6 mya

1. Substantially larger brain than H. habilis

2. Sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced

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C. Homo erectus (upright man)

1. Used stone tools, wore clothes, may have built fires

2. First hominins to migrate out of Africa – 1.8 mya

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D. Neanderthals (Homo neaderthalensis)

1. Large thick-browed hominids 2.Lived in Europe, Middle East, and Asia - 200,000 – 30,000 years ago

slide23

E. Homo sapiens

1. Appeared in Africa at least 160,000 years ago

2. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes suggest that all living humans are descended from common Homo sapiens ancestorswho lived in Africa 200,000 – 150,000 years ago

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F. Homo floresiensis “The Hobbits”!!

1. Indonesian island of Flores (discovered 2004)

2. Probably co-existed with modern humans – 95,000 – 13,000 years ago

brain size selected for
↑ Brain Size Selected For!

Adult cranial capacity(in cm3)

  • chimpanzees 300-500
  • australopithecines 390-545
  • early transitional humans 509-752
  • modern humans 900-1880
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V. Cultural Evolution

A. Unique human attributes

1. Language - is controlled by FOXP2 gene

2. Culture – the accumulated knowledge, beliefs, arts, etc. that are transmitted over generations

B. Three major stages in human cultural evolution

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2. Development of agriculture – 15,000 – 10,000 years ago

With agriculture, came permanent settlements and the first cities. Why was agriculture a major factor contributing to the growth of cities?

slide30

3. Industrial revolution – 18th century

How did the development of technology lead to an explosive growth of the human population?