HUMAN EVOLUTION Key Vocabulary Anthropoids – subgroup of primates Hominin (Hominid) – Paleoanthropology – Bipedal Brachiate What does it mean to be human? Bipedal Larger brain (capable of language and symbolic thought) Also: Reduced jawbones Shorter digestive tract
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
position of foramenmagnum
Note:Teeth and jaws - rounded rather than rectangular jaws
Our biases include:
a. New World monkeys – prehensile tails; nostrils on sides
b. Old world monkeys – lack a prehensile tail; nostrils point downward
(1) Discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia (1974)
(2) 40% complete!
b. A. afarensis footprints found in Tanzania by Mary Leakey (1978)
4. Another lineage of australopiths - robust australopiths (Genus Paranthropus)
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) – site of the discovery of Paranthropus boisei by Richard Leakey
A. Homo habilis (handy man) 2.4 – 1.6 mya
1. Had a large brain 2. Used stone tools
1. Substantially larger brain than H. habilis
2. Sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced
1. Used stone tools, wore clothes, may have built fires
2. First hominins to migrate out of Africa – 1.8 mya
1. Large thick-browed hominids 2.Lived in Europe, Middle East, and Asia - 200,000 – 30,000 years ago
1. Appeared in Africa at least 160,000 years ago
2. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes suggest that all living humans are descended from common Homo sapiens ancestorswho lived in Africa 200,000 – 150,000 years ago
1. Indonesian island of Flores (discovered 2004)
2. Probably co-existed with modern humans – 95,000 – 13,000 years ago
Adult cranial capacity(in cm3)
A. Unique human attributes
1. Language - is controlled by FOXP2 gene
2. Culture – the accumulated knowledge, beliefs, arts, etc. that are transmitted over generations
B. Three major stages in human cultural evolution
With agriculture, came permanent settlements and the first cities. Why was agriculture a major factor contributing to the growth of cities?
How did the development of technology lead to an explosive growth of the human population?