Introduction to Psychology. Life Before Psychology. Philosophy asks questions about the mind: Does perception accurately reflect reality? How is sensation turned into perception?. Problem - No “scientific” way of studying problems. René Descartes (1596-1650).
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Problem - No “scientific” way
of studying problems
Physiology asks similar questions about the mind
Predict what will happen
Systematically observe events
Do events support predictions
First Experimental Psych Lab (1879)
Focuses on the scientific study of the mind.
WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous
as the methods of chemistry & physics.
Wundt’s students start labs
across USA (1880-1900)
University of Leipzig
Univ of Pennsylvania
Mary Calkins - student of William James at
Harvard but was not awarded a Ph.D.
Founded psych lab at Wellesley College (1891)
Maragaret Washburn- first woman to receive
Ph.D. in Psychology. Wrote The Animal Mind,
which helped begin the Behaviorist movement.
Leta Hollingworth- Debunked popular theories
that suggested women were inferior to men.
Did pioneering work on adolescent development,
mental retardation & “gifted” children.
Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist
Founder of Psychology as a Science
Edward Titchner (1867-1927)
Student of Wundt
Formed Y at Cornell
Mental ProcessesPsychology (pre-1920)
William James (1842-1910)
Philosopher & Psychologist
Formed Y at Harvard
Analyze consciousness into basic elements
and study how they are related
Introspection - self-observation
of one’s own conscious experiences
Investigate the function, or purpose
of consciousness rather than its structure
Leaned toward applied work
“The whole is different than
the sum of its parts.”
Illusion of movement created by
presenting visual stimuli in rapid
A reaction against Structuralism
An attempt to focus attention back
onto conscious experience
(i.e., the mind)
Proposes the idea of the UNCONSCIOUS
Thoughts, memories & desires
exist below conscious awareness
and exert an influence on our
Unconscious expressed in
dreams & “slips of the tongue”
Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain
personality, mental disorders & motivation in
terms of unconscious determinants of behavior
Cognition the mental processes
involved in acquiring, processing,
storing & using information
Cognitive Psychologists return
to the study of learning,
memory, perception, language,
development & problem solving
Advent of computers (late 1950s) provides
a new model for thinking about the mind
How the body and brain create emotions, memories,
and sensory experiences.
How we learn from observable responses.
How to best study, assess and treat troubled people.
How we process, store and retrieve information.
How behavior and thinking vary across situations
A system of interrelated ideas used
to explain a set of observations
Trends & Issues In Society
Psychology develops in both a
social & historical context
physics & physiology
(IQ, SAT, GRE)
Nature versus Nurture
Ed & School