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Housing Choice: Most Promising Housing Strategies 2005 American Planning Association State National Planning Conference San Francisco, CA March 20, 2005 Bill Klein, AICP Director of Research, American Planning Association bklein@planning.org Stuart Meck, FAICP

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housing choice most promising housing strategies

Housing Choice: Most Promising Housing Strategies

2005 American Planning Association State National Planning Conference

San Francisco, CA

March 20, 2005


Bill Klein, AICP

    • Director of Research, American Planning Association
    • bklein@planning.org
  • Stuart Meck, FAICP
    • Senior Research Fellow, American Planning Association
    • smeck@planning.org
  • Lynn M. Ross
    • Research Associate, American Planning Association
    • lross@planning.org
housing choice scoping sessions
Housing Choice Scoping Sessions

Sponsored by Fannie Mae Foundation

6 half-day sessions held Fall 2004

North Carolina, Southern New England, Oregon-Washington, Midwest, Texas, and California.

Participants from various disciplines.

key discussion components
Key Discussion Components

Each Scoping Session Addressed:

  • Housing Need
  • Politics of Housing
  • Affordable Housing Production and Retention
  • Most Promising Strategies
housing need north carolina
Housing Need(North Carolina)
  • Regional differences
    • East
    • Metropolitan areas
    • Coastal areas and resort areas
  • Impact of second home owners
  • Section 8 waiting list
  • Demand for one person units
politics of housing north carolina
Politics of Housing(North Carolina)
  • Lack of overarching housing policy
  • Housing policy and production functions spread out
  • No dedicated source of funding
affordable housing production and retention north carolina
Affordable Housing Production and Retention (North Carolina)
  • Lack of capacity for rehabilitation
  • Limitations on investment tax credits
  • Shortage of land for multifamily housing
  • Difficulty in amending state building code
  • Lack of express authority of inclusionary zoning
  • Race-based opposition
north carolina most promising housing strategies
North Carolina:Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • Education on handling money and credit
  • Authorization for inclusionary zoning
  • Statewide minimum housing code
  • Development of rental housing production capacity
  • Incentivized housing trust fund for realtors and bankers
  • Education campaign on benefits of affordable housing
housing need southern new england
Housing Need (Southern New England)
  • Transition from industrial to service economy
  • Changes in household size and composition
  • Immigration, especially for key target areas
  • Loss of subsidy for very low income hshds
  • Stratification/segregation
  • Focus on workforce hsng impacts very low income
politics of housing southern new england
Politics of Housing (Southern New England)
  • Anti-tax feelings drive the discussion
  • Resources down to ¼ what they once were
  • Anti-development feelings generally
  • Fear of in-migration, impact on schools
  • Perception of excess profits by developers
  • Legitimate infrastructure needs
  • The Governor must lead
affordable housing production and retention southern new england
Affordable Housing Production and Retention(Southern New England)
  • Devolution of Federal responsibilities
  • More sophisticated ways to stop dev
  • Loss of by-right zoning for multi-family
  • Lack of certainty in process
  • Diminished profitability, fewer for-profits
  • Impact fees; pacing and phasing mechanisms; off-site improvements
southern new england most promising housing strategies
Southern New England: Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • Massachusetts Chapter 40R: Smart Growth Zoning Districts
    • 2 carrots for higher density
  • Rhode Island Public Laws, Chapter 286
    • R.I. Affordable Housing Act
  • Inclusionary Housing Strategies
    • Voluntary vs. mandatory inclusionary tools
housing need oregon washington
Housing Need(Oregon-Washington)
  • Most counties in Washington and Oregon have affordable housing need
  • Age and income cohorts affect housing
  • Immigration impact—Hispanics represent 1 in 3 new households
  • Portland, Corvallis becoming more expensive
  • Seattle—very expensive
politics of housing oregon washington
Politics of Housing(Oregon-Washington)
  • Strong state growth management structure
  • Limitation on use of inclusionary zoning in Oregon
  • No dedicated source of funds
  • Voluntary housing goals from Portland Metro
  • Reliance on sales tax and commercial activity
affordable housing production and retention oregon washington
Affordable Housing Production and Retention (Oregon-Washington)
  • Land inside Portland growth boundary “not ready for development”
  • Hard to find individual building lots for under $100,000
  • Hope VI working well in Seattle
  • Investment tax credits—too many soft costs
oregon washington most promising housing strategies
Oregon-Washington: Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • Oregon LCDC needs to develop capacity to assist local governments with affordable housing
  • Needs to be a mechanism to pledge affordable housing as a condition of UGB expansions
  • Real estate transfer tax for affordable housing, lift ban on exclusionary zoning in Oregon
  • Banking land for affordable housing
  • Citizen education
  • More short term activity to produce affordable units
housing need midwest
Housing Need(Midwest)
  • Participants were from Indiana
  • Loss of jobs—no longer strong industrial base
  • Central Indiana housing affordable, northern part of state more need
  • Lack of high-end housing in Indianapolis
  • Imbalance of housing choices in Indy region
  • Lack of very low income housing
  • Homelessness
politics of housing midwest
Politics of Housing(Midwest)
  • State has 66 public housing authorities
  • But state oversees public housing
  • No dedicated revenue source for affordable housing
  • No housing planning requirement in Indiana, but now in Illinois
affordable housing production and retention midwest
Affordable Housing Production and Retention (Midwest)
  • Manufactured housing filling needs in rural areas of state
  • Special exception requirements for manufactured housing
  • Fort Wayne citywide housing strategy
  • Affordable housing trust fund in Indianapolis
  • Owner-occupied downtown housing in Indy
midwest most promising housing strategies
Midwest: Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • Illinois Comprehensive Housing Plan
  • Illinois Affordable Housing Planning and Appeal Act
  • Cooperative efforts outside government
  • Training local planning commissions concerning affordable housing
  • UniGov approach to housing to share burdens and benefits
housing need texas
Housing Need (Texas)
  • Immigrant Influx
  • Household Composition
  • Spatial Component- Rural v. Urban
  • Jobs- Housing Balance
  • Change in Poverty Dynamics
  • Boom/Bust Economy
politics of housing texas
Politics of Housing(Texas)
  • State Level
    • Not typically a Governors Office issue
    • A Regional Issue for the Legislature
  • Local Level
    • NIMBY
    • Race and Income Segregation
    • Property Values
affordable housing production and retention texas
Affordable Housing Production and Retention(Texas)
  • Low Income Housing Tax Credit
  • Regulatory Barrier Removal
  • State Programs
  • Role of the Non-profit Sector
  • Manufactured Housing
texas most promising housing strategies
Texas: Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • S.M.A.R.T. HousingTM program
    • Austin
  • Land Assemblage Redevelopment Authority (LARA)
    • Houston
  • Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)
    • San Antonio
housing need california
Housing Need(California)
  • Sharp population growth
  • Immigration
  • Inadequate production of housing overall
  • Two markets
    • Those who bought early
    • Those who are trying to get in
  • Speculative housing in Sacramento region
politics of housing california
Politics of Housing(California)
  • Proposition 13 and impact
  • Housing policy not a priority for any governor
  • Lack of comprehensive approach
  • Local government barriers—larger houses, larger lots
affordable housing production and retention california
Affordable Housing Production and Retention (California)
  • Builders wary of affordable housing market
  • Regulatory barriers
  • Private, but not public, enforcement of state housing element law
  • Lack of certainty
  • San Diego SRO
california most promising strategies
California: Most Promising Strategies
  • More housing generally
  • Accessory dwelling units
  • Higher densities
  • Statewide inclusionary zoning
  • Maintaining Section 8
  • The “Urban Williamson Act”
  • Linking affordable housing to job development
  • Building affordable housing in smaller clusters
top 10 most common themes
Top 10 Most Common Themes

10. Impact of Local/Regional Tax Structure

9. Inadequate State Funding for Housing

8. Lack of Support at State Legislative Level

7. Use of Tax Credits

6. Wages vs. Cost of Living

top 10 most common themes36
Top 10 Most Common Themes

5. Service Gap for the Very Low Income

4. Change in Household Composition

3. Impact of Federal Programs

2. Need for More Education, Training, and Capacity-Building Programs

1. Not In My Backyard

learn more
Learn More

APA Website, www.planning.org

  • Affordable Housing Reader
    • Free online reader features 100 APA published articles.
  • Housing and Community Development Division
    • Learn about the division activities, join, read the newsletter.
  • Housing Choice online (coming soon)
    • Complete session summaries, theme analysis, strategy descriptions.
thank you for attending

Thank you for attending!

2005 American Planning Association National Planning Conference

San Francisco, CA