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  1. Further workshops • Planning and Evaluating Effective Practice with e-learning - A series of regional workshops from the JISC e-Learning and Pedagogy strand in partnership with the Higher Education Academy • 26 October 2005, Armada House, Bristol • 25 November 2005, Museum of Science, Manchester • 1 December 2005, Horticultural Halls, London • 11 January, 2006 Aston Lakeside Suite, Birmingham • 18 January 2006, Edinburgh University; Edinburgh • Book online at www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_workshops.html

  2. Planning and Evaluating Effective Practicewith e-Learning 1. How do people learn?Three approaches to understanding learning Presenter’s Title

  3. What is ‘e’-learning? • learning facilitated and supported by the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs or ILTs) • Networked computer marks a paradigm shift: mobile networks arguably another • But all learning involves technologies • All learning is potentially mixed-mode learning So… • We are not trying to articulate some part of learning. We are trying to re-articulate learning in a new technological context.

  4. What is learning? • Think of something you have learned: • it might be a knowledge, skill, practice or principle • How did you learn (to do) this? • What did you do? Or: What happened? • Was anyone else involved, and how? • What changes were you aware of as you learned? • What difference did it make? • What was the outcome of this learning for you? • How could other people tell that you have learned this? What did the outcome look like to them?

  5. How do people learn?

  6. Three (and a half) approaches to understanding learning • People learn by association: building ideas or skills step-by-step • e.g. mnemonics, training drills, imitation, instruction • associative learning leads to accurate reproduction or recall • People learn by constructing ideas and skills through active discovery • e.g. exploration, experimentation, guided discovery, problem-solving, reflection • constructive learning leads to integrated skills and deepunderstanding • People learn by constructing ideas and skills through dialogue • e.g. discussion, debate, collaboration, shared knowledge-building • social constructive learning also leads to integrated skills and deepunderstanding • People learn by participating in communities of practice • e.g. apprenticeship, work-based learning, legitimate peripheral participation • situated practice leads to the development of habits, values and identities

  7. Three broad approaches cont. • All approaches emphasise: • Learner activity • Constructivealignment of activities with desired outcomes • The importance of feedback • Opportunities for consolidation (practice)and integration • They differ in: • The role and importance of other people • The authenticity of the activity • The formality of activity structures and sequences • The emphasis on retention/reproduction or reflection/internalisation • The locus of control

  8. Using these ideas in practice • Go back to the thing you learned • What kind of learning do you think was taking place? • Was it some other kind of learning, not represented here? • Make your own notes • What kinds of learning outcome could be supported by each of these approaches? • What would you use each of these approaches for in a real teaching and learning context?

  9. Further resources • Terry Mayes and Sara de Freitas (2004) Review of e-learning theories, frameworks and models • Helen Beetham (2005) Approaches to learning mapped to sequences of learning activity • Effective Practice with e-Learning: pages 12-13 • Teaching and Learning Models and Approaches (2003) http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ccs/elearn/teach_and_learn_models.htm • Theory into Practice database (updated 2005)http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html • Martin Ryder’s Learning Theory resources (updated 2005)http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/theory.html