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Flavors and Poteniators. Flavors are seldom listed individually on the label Potentiators are listed on the label The chemistry of food flavor is very complex More than 500 compounds in the flavor of coffee Up to 400 compounds in the flavor of aged cheese.

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flavors and poteniators
Flavors and Poteniators
  • Flavors are seldom listed individually on the label
  • Potentiators are listed on the label
  • The chemistry of food flavor is very complex
    • More than 500 compounds in the flavor of coffee
    • Up to 400 compounds in the flavor of aged cheese
compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact
Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact

Name Flavor Character

Ethyl Vanillan Vanilla

Vanillan Vanilla

Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamon

Benzaldehyde Cherry

Ethyl Butyrate Fruity

Methyl Salicylate Wintergreen

Benzyl alcohol Fruity

Menthol Mint

Isoamyl Acetate Banana

D-carvone Caraway

L-Carvone Spearmint

Thiamin-HCl meat-like

Diacetyl Butter, cream

Ethyl propionate Fruity

compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact3
Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact

Ethyl Maltol Sweet sugar

Ethylacetoacetate Green fruity

Ethyl Anthranilate Concord grape

Allylisothiocyanate Mustard

Anethole Anise

Citral Lemon/citrus

Butyl Butyrllate Dairy

Cinnamyl Alcohol Cinnamon

Isoamylacetate Banana

-decalactone Peach

compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact4
Compounds most commonly used and their flavor impact

Piperonal Floral

Eugenol Clove

Maltol Sweet sugar

Isobutylacetate Banana

-dodecalactone Peach (Fries peach)

Linalool Floral

3-Hexen-1-ol Green, grassy

a-terpineol citrus floral

Ethylmethylphenyl glycidate Strawberry

4-(p-hydrophenyl)-2-butanone Raspberry

where do flavors come from
Where do flavors come from?

Essential oil$

Extracts - Water, solvent, super critical

Oleoresins, spinning cone



Maillard - heating of sugars with amino acids, proteins,etc.


Chemical synthesis

essential oils
Essential Oils

Name Plant Part %Yield Major Constituent

Almond Ripe kernal .5-2% Benzaldehyde

Anise Fruit 2.5-3 Anethol

Basil Flower 0.2 Methylchavicol

Bay Leaves 1-3.5 Eugenol

Caraway Ripe seed 3-6 D-carvone

Cardamon seed 3.5-7 Cineole

Cassia leaves/twigs 0.3 Cinnamic aldehyde

Celery seed 2-2.5 D-limonene

Clove Dry bud 15-20 Eugenol

Cumin seed 2-3 Cumin aldehyde

essential oils7
Essential Oils

Coriander Dry,ripe fruit .4-1 D-linalool

Dill seed 2-3.5 D-carvone

Dill weed 0.3-1.5 D-carvone

Garlic Bulb 0.02 allylsulfides

Ginger Root 1.5-3 Zingerone

Grapefruit Peel 0.3 D-limonene

Lemon Peel .3-.4 D-limonene

Mustard seed 1 Allylisothiocyanates

Nutmeg Dry seed 6-18 Terpenes

Onion bulb 0.02 propylsulfides

Orange peel .3 D-limonene

essential oils8
Essential Oils

Pepper Dried, ripe fruit 1-3 Terpenes, piperine

Peppermint Dried leaves .3-.5 Menthol

Pimento Dried ripe fruit 3.5-4 Eugenol


Pimento Leaf .5-1 Eugenol

Rosemary Flowers,leaves .5-.7 Cineole

Sage Leaves .7-2 Thujone

Savory Flowers,leaves .5-1.5 Thymol

Spearmint Leaves,stems 0.7 L-carvone

Thyme Flowers .7 Thymol

Wintergreen Plant .7 Methylsalicylate

  • Cheese
  • Beer
  • Wine
  • Yogurt
  • cocoa
protein hydrolysates
Protein Hydrolysates

Sec. 102.22 Protein hydrolysates.

The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific

to the ingredient and shall include the identity of the food source from

which the protein was derived.

(a) ``Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,'' ``hydrolyzed soy protein,'' and

``autolyzed yeast extract'' are examples of acceptable names.

``Hydrolyzed casein'' is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas

``hydrolyzed milk protein'' is not an acceptable name for this

ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates

can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names ``hydrolyzed

vegetable protein'' and ``hydrolyzed protein'' are not acceptable

because they do not identify the food source of the protein.

protein hydrolysates11
Protein Hydrolysates

Produced using heat, acid, enzymes





Partial hydrolysates may be allergenic

msg monosodium glutamate
MSG -Monosodium glutamate

Sodium salt of L-glutamic acid

Taste Threshold about 0.02%

Use levels 0.1 -0.8 % as consumed

Taste "umami"

Using higher MSG allows salt reduction in "clear soup”

(Yamaguchi and Takahashi, JFS 49, (1984) 82-85.



Guanosine monophosphate

Inosine monophosphate

Known as flavor “potentiators”

Synergistic response with MSG

GMP > IMP usual substitution - 5% of MSG

Uses: savory and snack foods

msg and nucleotide content of some foods mg
MSG and Nucleotide Content of Some Foods (mg%)


Beef 42 163 7.5

Pork 29 186 3.7 8.6

Chicken 56 115 2.2 13.1 Tuna 8 286 0 5.9

Clam 296 0 0 12

Shitake mushr. 300 0 216 321

Squid 53 0 0 184

Grape 44

Tomato 5 0 0 1

stability of nucleotides during heat processing
Stability of Nucleotides During Heat Processing

Compound % Recovery

IMP 52

GMP 36

Inosine 90

Guanosine 95

(60 min. at 124 C, pH 4.5)

(Nguyen and Sporns, JFS 50 (1985) 812-814,822.)

stability of enhancers
Stability of Enhancers



MSG 94

IMP 72

GMP 57

(30 min. at 124 C, pH 5)

maillard reaction
Maillard Reaction
  • Can produce up to 150 different flavor compounds
  • Different amino acids produce different flavor profiles
  • One example is cheese crackers
    • Most of the flavor of cheese crackers is from pH and salt – Maillard products can differentiate the different crackers
  • Requires sugars and high temperature processing
  • The flavor notes of carament is one example
delivery systems for flavors
Delivery Systems For Flavors

l. Neat

2. Solutions

Oil Soluble

Solutions In vegetable oils, animal fats

Water 'Soluble

Solutions In alcohol, propylene glycol, glycerin

3 emulsions
3. Emulsions

Gum arabic, modified starch stabilized

Emulsifier stabilized

Density balancers

Brominated Vegetable oil (BVO) 1.23-1.33g/mL

Glyceryl abietate (Glycerol esters of wood rosin,

not on label -ester gum) 1.10 g/mL

4 solids
4. Solids

Coated onto solids

maltodextrins, sugars, cellulose, etc.



Carbohydrate (gum arabic,, modified food starch)


technical problems with flavors
Technical Problems With Flavors

1. Stability of concentrate/solution

a. Oxidation

b. Loss of more volatile components

c. Physical separation

d. chemical interactions

2. Flavor quality

a. Lack of notes

b. Harshness

c. Incompatibility with other flavors in product

technical problems with flavors23
Technical Problems With Flavors

3. Carry through stability in product

a. Volatilization



"Salting out"

b. Partitioning between water and oil

technical problems with flavors24
Technical Problems With Flavors

3. Carry through stability in product

c. Reaction, with other components

Maillard reactions - aldehydes, ketones, sugars, amines



d. Packaging

Permeability to flavors, oxygen

Adsorption to polymers


technical problems with flavors25
Technical Problems With Flavors

4. Authentication / labeling / legality

21CFR 100.22

density balancers
Density Balancers

Brominated Vegetable oil (BVO) 1.23-1.33g/mL

Glyceryl abietate (Glycerol esters of wood rosin,

not on label -ester gum)

choosing a flavor
Choosing a Flavor
  • Cost
  • What do you want?
    • Match a product
    • Natural
  • Processing issues
    • Heat
    • Pressure
    • Mixing
    • Precise description
product issues
Product issues
  • Interaction with other components
    • Adsorption
    • Reaction – Maillard, esterification etc
  • Compatibility with matrix
    • Fat vs water solubility
    • Need to mask other flavors
  • Partition within the product
packaging issues
Packaging Issues
  • Light
  • Oxygen
  • Scalping
safety issues
Safety Issues
  • Allegenicity
marketing issues
Marketing Issues
  • Natural
  • 21 CFR 100.22