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Developing a Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System: From Commitment to Action. EWC-III, Scientific and Technical Symposium Bonn, 28 March 2006 UNESCAP Thailand Trust Fund Briefing Bangkok, 28 March 2006. Patricio A. Bernal, Executive Secretary of IOC, ADG UNESCO

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Developing a Global Tsunami Warningand Mitigation System:From Commitment to Action

EWC-III, Scientific and Technical SymposiumBonn, 28 March 2006UNESCAP Thailand Trust Fund BriefingBangkok, 28 March 2006

Patricio A. Bernal, Executive Secretary of IOC, ADG UNESCO

Laura Kong, Director, IOC ITIC

rev Sri Lanka Training, 3-7 April 2006

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A Call to Action … 26 December 2004250,000 dead, 500,000 injured

1 million displaced

$8 billion in damages

“We cannot stop natural calamities, but we can and must better equip individuals and communities to withstand them.”UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan

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Plate Tectonics

Active subducting plate boundaries

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  • 1965 - response to 1960 Pacific-wide Chile tsunami

    IOC established ICG/ITSU (now ICG/PTWS)

    Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System

    • successful & operational Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System

  • PTWC - Operational HQ

  • ITIC - Oversee and monitor effectiveness, Facilitate to establish new systems, preparedness, outreach

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28 member States (2005):

Australia, Canada, Chile, China,

Colombia, Cook Islands,

Costa Rica, Democratic

People's Republic of Korea,

Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, France,

Guatemala, Indonesia, Japan,

Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua,

Peru, Philippines, Republic of Korea,

Russian Federation, Singapore,

Thailand, United States, Samoa,


  • Successful Operational Tsunami Warning System > 40 yrs

  • Successful international scientific program

  • Pacific Basin monitoring of seismicity and sea levels

  • Direct humanitarian aim

  • Mitigate tsunami effects - save lives/property

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26 December 2004

  • 250,000 dead - Nations of the region act

  • IOC invited to lead TSUNAMI EWS establishment

  • UN/OCHA Project to ISDR started March 2005, $11m

    • core system implementation - IOC lead

    • integrated risk knowledge

    • public awareness and education

    • community level approaches

    • project coordination

Myanmar - 100



Somalia - 430


11 countries

~250,000 deaths

1 million displaced


Kenya - 1

Seychelles - 3


Tanzania - 10

Maldives - 108

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IOC in UN partnership


Warning guidance

Hazard assessment




Communication (GTS)


Public awareness


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IOC: Core system implementation

  • Governance

    • 2 intergovernmental coordination mtgs

  • Capacity building

    • Expert advisory missions

    • Startup training programme

  • Core system observational network

    • Interim advisory information service

    • Operational sea-level and seismic network for tsunami monitoring

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What is the System?

The system must be:

  • Fully owned by Indian Ocean countries

  • Based on international and multilateral cooperation

  • Based on open and free data exchange

  • Protect all countries in Indian Ocean

  • Transparent and accountable to all countries

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How does it function?

  • Based on joint operation of international networks of detection connected with national tsunami warning centres

  • High-level commitment by country with UN governance provided under the IOC

  • Each nation is responsible for issuing warnings in their territory and for protecting its own population.

  • National centres must have strong links with emergency preparedness authorities (national, provincial and local)

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Indian Ocean Where are we now?

  • A single system planned

    All countries of the Indian Ocean participate

  • Interim Tsunami Advisory Information from centres in Hawaii and Tokyo.

  • Natl 7/24 Tsunami Focal Points in 26 nations

  • Governance - UN/IOC through ICG/IOTWS

  • Full scope of task recognized:

    multi-nation (28), multi-year (>3 to 10+ yrs)

  • Joint UN implementation: IOC, WMO, ISDR, UNDP, UN-ESCAP

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Time schedule and milestones in 2005 Dec 26

Implementation Interim System IOC-JMA-PTWC

16 National Assessment Missions


Sea level stations being deployed

  • March 3-8: UNESCO/IOC 1st Regional Technical Coordination Meeting, Paris

  • April 14-16: UNESCO/IOC 2nd Regional Coordination Meeting, Mauritius

  • June 21: IOC General Assembly, Paris: Formal establishment of ICG/IOTWS

  • August 3-5: ICG/IOTWS-I , Perth: focus on technical aspects

  • December 14-16: ICG/IOTWS-II, Hyderabad: recommendations & commitments

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Initial System for July 2006 Dec 26

  • Based on Existing:

  • Network of 26 (of 29) National Information Centres [7/24]

  • Tsunami Focal Points [7/24]

  • Slowly evolving into a

  • Network of Tsunami Warning Centres in charge of

  • National Mitigation Plans (Assessment, Warning, Preparedness)

  • Need to develop Regional Instrumental Networks:

  • Improved Seismographic network (faster and more accurate detection of earthquakes through denser network, better real-time source characterization)

  • Real-time network of sea-level stations (faster detection of tsunamis through denser network)

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Operational Dec 26


Core IOTWS Seismographic Network

Agreed on Stations

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May-Sept, 2005: Dec 26 16 missionsTo be scheduled, 2006: 6 missions Maldives, Djibouti,East Timor, Iran, South Africa, YemenNot requesting: Australia, France, India, Singapore, United Kingdom

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Questionnaire sections Dec 26

5 Tsunami Mitigation Categories:

  • Contact information

  • Authority and coordination

  • Warnings and tsunami monitoring

  • Warning response and Emergency Action / Preparedness

  • Hazard and risks

  • Community/Individual awareness and preparedness

  • Tsunami response to 28 march 2005 M8.5 earthquake off Sumatra, Indonesia

  • Overall enhancement of national capabilities to mitigate impact of hazards (WMO)

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Summary: Regional CB Needs Dec 26

  • Assistance -harmonize existing practices / protocols

    Data collection, monitoring, evaluation, warning comm

    International standards and interoperability

  • Assistance toestablish real-time regional / local seismic and sea level networkswith real-time data acquisition, display, and analysis to support the monitoring / detection

  • Equipmentupgrade and capacity building in Global Telecommunication System(GTS) to NMS

  • Training and software fornumerical modeling

    Inundation maps, Evaluation of hazards / vulnerability

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Summary: Regional CB Needs Dec 26

  • Educational modulesand training - multi-hazards Targeted various stakeholders, incl school curriculum

  • Equipment upgrades / capacity building utilization of satellite information - Multi-hazard EWS incl tsunami

  • Disseminate marine warnings

  • StrengthenGIS capabilitiesand applications to disaster management to aid in planning, emergency response, and post-disaster recovery

  • Electronic awarenessmaterials Adaptable for language, culture, local comm

    Tsunamis and other disasters

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The Challenge Dec 26

  • We essentially know what is needed at the country level in 16 countries

    Work for rest of countries will be completed in 2006 (6 countries)

  • ICG is requesting a Comprehensive IOTWS Plan, including the Country level

  • Therefore, we need the development of the National Plans at the Country level.

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TSUNAMI Early Warning Overview Dec 26

  • Hazard Risk Assessment

  • Warning Guidance

  • Mitigation - Preparedness

Earthquake Tsunami

National Government

Local Government

Tsunami Warning Center

What is Tsunami?


Where is Evacuation Route?

Mass Media

International - Regional Framework

National Warning System

Public Awareness

Cabinet Office Japan

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A perfect warning will be useless Dec 26

if people do not know what to do

in case of an emergency

Awareness and preparedness at the country level is essential

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ICG/IOTWS Working Groups Dec 26

WG 1: Seismic Measurements, Data Collection,

and Exchange

WG 2: Sea Level Data Collection and Exchanges,

including Deep-Ocean Tsunami Detection

WG 3: Risk assessment

WG 4: Modeling, Forecasting and

Scenario Development

WG 5: Interoperable Advisory and Warning Centres

WG 6 (proposed): Mitigation, Preparedness and

Response, incl NGO

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WG 6: Mitigation, Dec 26Preparedness and Response

  • MS ensuredevelopment / DM officials participate in ICG / WG, incl Red Cross/Red Crescent, NGOs, community groups, private sector

  • Develop overall strategy documentbased on initial ISDR initial draft – consistent withIOC core system implementation& WG TORs

    ISDRto continue towork with IOC & partners

  • National level, coordination with downstream stakeholders facilitated through DRR national platforms (Hyogo Framework 2005-2015) to ensure broader based ownership

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Mitigation, Preparedness and Response: Terms of Reference Dec 26

Focus national efforts for effective tsunami warning:

  • Promote,mainstream good practicesinto development planning / practice: policies / institutions, sectors, risk mitigation, recovery

  • Promote, supportengagement of NTWC / experts in national platformsfor DRR, all-hazard integration, DM

  • Provide ofguidelines, tools, best practices to DMsector: public information, education, training, communications, evacuation planning / drills, emergency mgmt

  • Communicate ICG WG resultsto development and DM communitiesand vice versa (needs to WG)

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  • June 21-30, 2005: the 23 Dec 26rd IOC General Assembly decided resolutions on the establishment of a global and three regional Intergovernmental Coordination Groups on TEWS (XXIII-12 to XXXIII-15) for

    -the Indian Ocean (ICG/IOTWS)

    - the Caribbean (ICG/CARTWS)

    - the NE Atlantic and Med (ICG/NEAMTWS)

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Intergovernmental Coordination Group meetings Dec 26

  • 03-05 Aug 2005: ICG/IOTWS-I, Perth

  • 21-22 Nov 2005: ICG/NEAMTWS-I, Rome

  • 14-16 Dec 2005: ICG/IOTWS-II, Hyderabad

  • 10-12 Jan 2006: ICG/CARTWS-I, Barbados

    and to come:

  • May 2006: ICG/ITSU-XXI, Melbourne

  • May 2006: ICG/NEAMTWS-II, Nice

  • July/August 2006: ICG/IOTWS-III, Bali

  • Dec 2006: ICG/CARTWS-II, Venezuela

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Beyond immediate response: Dec 26Multi-Hazard Platforms

  • Storm – surges (IOC, WMO, JCOMM)

  • Tropical storms (WMO, JCOMM)

  • Improving Storm and cyclones track forecasts (IOC, WMO, JCOMM)

  • Ice Hazard (IOC, WMO, JCOMM)

  • Oil Spills (IOC, WMO, UNEP)

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For further information see: Dec 26

International Tsunami Information Centre

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IOC Executive Secretary: Dr. Patricio Bernal Dec 26

IOC Tsunami Unit: Dr. Uli Wolf

Masahiro Yamamoto

Bernardo Aliaga

IOC ITIC / Tsunami Unit: Dr. Laura Kong

PTWS Secretariat:

Chair, Vice-Chair: Chile, Canada


Secretariat: IOC Regional Office, Perth

Chair: India

Vice-Chairs: Indonesia, Mauritius

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IOC Activities – 2006 Dec 26

  • Coordinated Implementation Plan - partners

  • ICG/IOTWS WGs (coordinate, facilitate, synergize across other regions)

  • Upgrade/install GLOSS and other sea level, seismic network - ongoing

  • TsunamiTeacher - May 2006

    electronic, dynamic training modules + resources (Media, Education, Public/Private Sector)

  • Customizeable awarenessmaterials

    Adapt for language, culture, local community

    IOC-ADRC Educational Curricula - Thailand, April 2006

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IOC Activities –2006 Dec 26

Capacity Building / Training

- Seismology – USGS, FDSN/IRIS GSN, AfricaArray

Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan, India, Maldives, East Africa /West IO

- Numerical Modeling – Expert scientists,

I - Sources / Propagation, May (Malaysia, Belgium)

II - Inundation / Evacuation, Sept-Dec

- TsunamiTeacher Workshops – up tp 8 countries, May

- Tsunami Warning Operations and Emergency Response - Indonesia, Thailand, Mozambique, Mauritius, etc

- RANET Communications - warning centre to local

communities - May 2006

- Risk and vulnerability assessment - use of GIS tools ESRI - IOC, April, 2006

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ICG/PTWS - South China Sea Dec 26

  • Synergies with ICG/IOTWS WGs

  • Interim Tsunami Advisory Information Service

    JMA NW Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center expands

    Close coordination with PTWC

    Start 1 April 2006

  • IOC-Malaysia MOSTI, 27-28 April, Kuala Lumpur

    Roundtable Symposium on Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards and Risks

  • Pacific-wide Tsunami Drill, 16-17 May 2006

    PTWC initiated

    2 sources - Philippine (Pacific) and Chile

    UNDP to sponsor observers to Philippines