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BIOFORTIFICATION, A POWERFUL TOOL FIGHTING AGAINST POVERTY. 范云六 张春义 CHINESE ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NOVEMBER 17, 2007 BEIJING. Poor living conditions and nutrition status in some rural areas. Iron anemia deficiency. <6 months. <5 y. Adult (female). Adult ( male ). >60 y.

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slide1

BIOFORTIFICATION, A POWERFUL TOOL FIGHTING AGAINST POVERTY

范云六 张春义

CHINESE ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

NOVEMBER 17, 2007 BEIJING

prevalence of nutrition deficiencies in china

Iron anemia deficiency

<6 months

<5 y

Adult

(female)

Adult

(male)

>60 y

urban

28%

21.7%

27.5%

10.6%

20.6%

rural

50%

41.2%

VA deficiency

Deficiency (3~12 y)

Marginal deficiency (3~12 y)

urban

3%

29%

rural

11.2%

49.6%

Zinc deficiency

Boys (<6 y)

Girls (<6 y)

urban

31.3%

38.3%

rural

32.6%

40.8%

Prevalence of nutrition deficiencies in China
slide4

Relationship of nutrients to health and disease (Clydesdale, 1998)

Cognitive Heart Cancer

function disease

Iron Vit E Vit E

Zinc Vit C -carotene

Thiamin -carotene Vit C

Vit B12 Folic acid Iron

Vit B6 Folic acid

Vit B12

Iron

Osteoporosis AnaemiaBirth defects

Calcium Iron Folic acid

Vit D Folic acid Vit A

Vit B12

Vit B6

slide5

微量营养缺乏造成了巨大的社会、经济损失

1、人力资源损失严重

1)体力不足、劳动能力降低。

2)智力受损,受教育的能力低下,创新能力不足。

3)营养缺乏与急性、传染性疾病互为因果,形成恶性循环。联合国儿童基金会统计,1999年发展中国家5岁以下的儿童死亡1700万名,其中49%与营养不良有着直接或间接的关系。

4)营养缺乏是许多慢性疾病的潜在原因。联合国儿童基金会一系列的研究显示,胎儿期和婴儿期的营养损害,在他们成年后易患诸如心血管疾病,肥胖症,高血压,以及糖尿病等疾病。

5)营养缺乏会世代相传,形成恶性循环。 

6)贫困的恶性循环。营养不良长期以来被认为是贫困的结果,越来越多的证据显示,营养不良也是贫困的原因。

据Ross与Horten对亚洲几个国家的数据分析表明,改善营养可以增强人力资源的素质,从而提高劳动效率与经济发展速度;使营养改善与经济发展形成交替的、螺旋式的上升趋势。反之,如果营养状况恶化,营养缺乏,影响整个民族的智能发展,对经济发展带来的负面影响也会是螺旋式的下降。

slide6

IDA-caused economic loss in China

* equal to percentage of GDP

3.6%(adult: 0.7%,children:2.9%);

* 预计今后10年:

成年人缺铁性贫血造成经济损失将达到7020亿元

若缺铁性贫血降低30%,其所产生的经济价值将达到

1070亿元,净产值相当于2001年GDP的0.73%;

儿童缺铁性贫血所造成的损失累计将达21787亿元,相

当于2001年GDP的2.9%。

根据《中国营养状况十年跟踪1990-2000》

strategies
Strategies

• food fortification

• supplement

• biofortification:

  • easy to produce and disseminate
  • simple and safe for consumers
  • available for vast majority
  • cost-effective
slide8

Biofortification

*

To develop staple food crops containing highly available micronutrients such as iron, zinc and vitamin A for preventing global deficiencies of these nutrients.

*

To screen for biofortified crops from existing germplasms

*

To Breed for biofortified crops using varieties from worldwide

*

Efficacy study

*

Intervention

*

Dissemination and extension

harvestplus program
HarvestPlus Program

To develop micronutrient dense staple crops using the best traditional breeding practices and modern biotechnology.

Phase 2

  • Banana/Plantain
  • Barley
  • Cowpeas
  • Groundnuts
  • Lentils
  • Millet
  • Pigeon Peas
  • Potato
  • Sorghum
  • Yams

Phase 1

  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Maize
  • Cassava
  • Sweetpotato
  • Beans
slide11

www.harvestplus-China.org

中国生物强化是HarvestPlus的姊妹组织,目的是通过遗传育种和营养学研究,提高作物中的微量营养元素含量和人体摄入量,减少人群尤其是贫困人群中广泛存在的微量营养缺乏.

target crops in hpc
Target Crops in HPC

· Rice

· Maize

· Wheat

· Sweet Potato

Target Micronutrients

· Iron (Fe)

· Zinc (Zn)

· Vitamin A (VA)

13 Institutions involved

CAAS · CAU · Zhejiang University et al.

slide13

中国生物强化项目机构成员

HarvestPlus-China Program Officers

HarvestPlus-China

Director

Fan Yunliu, Professor/Academician

Biotechnology Research Institute, CAAS

Associate Directors

Wan Jianmin, Xingen Lei,

Professor Ph. D

Director General Associate Professor

Crop Science Research Institute Department of Animal Science

CAAS Cornell University, Ithaca

Secretaries

Zhang Chunyi Wang Lei

Associate Professor Associate Professor

Biotechnology Research Institute Biotechnology Research Institute

CAAS CAAS

slide14

Target areas of HarvestPlus-China

Beijing

CIMMIT

陕西

Shanghai

Chengdu

安徽

pengxi

Hangzhou

凉山彝族

浙西南

Kunming

天等县

临沧佤族

马瑶族

Nanning

文山壮族

北京6项,合作单位涉及北京,成都,昆明,南宁等地区的10个单位

杭州2项,合作单位涉及杭州,上海等地区的6个单位

slide15

Breeding for micronutrient dense crops

Rice: Fe, 6.8~8.6 g/g (>10 g/g , 400g)

Maize: Fe, 42.33g/g (>50 g/g , 200g)

Maze: β-carotene, 20.29 g/g (>10 g/g ,)

Wheat:Fe, 43.4~48.2 g/g (>25 g/g , 400g)

Zn, 41.1~42 g/g (>9 g/g , 400g)

Sweat potato:β-carotene, 128~231 g/g (>100 g/g)

Baseline survey and intervention is progressing

slide16

5.Efficacy study with beta -carotene dense sweet potato on children suffering from vitamin A deficiency

White Sweetpatato for the group of blank comparison

Orange Sweetpatato for the group of experiment

Bowl for children eating sweetpatato

Eating sweet potato

slide18

Carotenoid fortified sweet potato can greatly improve the health status of the children suffering from vitamin A deficiency and marginal vitamin A deficiency. This is the first success in human trial completed with biofortified sweet potato in Asia, and also the second case in the world.

The next is to enlarge the planting area in order to solve, in a greater scale, the problem of vitamin A deficiency encountered by the local people.

what to do next
What to do next
  • Germplasm-screening for biofortified lines
  • Integration of conventional breeding program with biotechnology
  • Nutrition intervention study & biofortification evaluation
slide20

Estimated Poverty Reduction from Public Investment in Coastal and Western Regions of China 1

1Reduction in the number of poor people per 10,000 yuan invested

Source: Shenggen Fau, et.al, 2002

slide21

Conclusion

  • The biofortification would help overcome the nutrient deficiency economically especially in rural areas.
  • The application of biofortified crops would benefit farmers by increasing their income in the long run.
  • Functional crops can play an important role in fighting against different types of nutrition deficiency and overnutrition.
slide22
为什么在我国开展生物强化
  • 我国扶贫工程的需要。我国是一个农业大国,农村人口占全国总人口的90%,其中贫困人口达3000万以上 .
  • 保障我国人民健康和人力资源的需要。贫困和营养不良/缺乏互为因果,使贫困者更贫困,形成恶性循环 ,解决我国“三农问题”的有效手段和途径。
  • 我国社会经济稳定、可持续发展的需要。在这些贫困人口中,营养不良、缺铁性贫血症、维生素A缺乏症、缺锌等发病率较高,这些疾病加大了人们家庭的支出与负担,严重影响当代及后代人口的健康水平和身体与智力水平,是关系到国民素质的重要问题。

优良的富含营养的生物强化作物新品种是改善我国贫困人口的营养与健康状况的一条即经济又切实可行的新途径,是全面实现“小康”、构建和谐社会的长远发展目标的关键之一,它也将为我国社会和经济的稳定和可持续发展保驾护航。

目前亟需政府的专门立项,给予充足的资金资助!