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Breed Differences and Taking Advantage of Complementarity. Larry V. Cundiff U.S. Meat Animal Research Center ARS-USDA Clay Center, NE. Brown Bagger IV Crossbreeding Opportunities for the US Beef Industry October 11, 2005. BREED DIFFERENCES an important genetic resource .

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Breed Differences and Taking Advantage of Complementarity


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slide1

Breed Differences and Taking

Advantage of Complementarity

Larry V. Cundiff

U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

ARS-USDA

Clay Center, NE

Brown Bagger IV

Crossbreeding Opportunities for

the US Beef Industry

October 11, 2005

slide2

BREED DIFFERENCES

an important genetic resource

  • Cross breeding of composite populations can be used to exploit:
    • HETEROSIS
    • COMPLEMENTARITY among breeds optimize performance levels for important traits and to match genetic potential with:
  • Market preferences
  • Feed resources
  • Climatic environment
slide3

Complementarity

(Cartwright, 1970, J. Anim. Sci. 30:706)

“Serving to fill out or complete, mutually

supplying each others lack” (Webster)

Not Complimentarity

“Expression of esteem or respect, or token

of esteem” (Webster)

slide4

COMPLEMENTARITY

is maximized in terminal crossing systems

Terminal Sire Breed

Rapid and efficient growth

Optimizes carcass composition

and meat quality in

slaughter progeny

  • Cow Herd
  • Small to moderate size
  • Adapted to climate
  • Optimal milk production
    • for feed resources

Progeny

Maximize high quality lean beef

produced per unit feed consumed

by progeny and cow herd

slide5

SIRE BREEDS USED TO PRODUCE FI CROSSES WITH ANGUS AND HEREFORD DAMS IN THE GERMPLASM EVALUATION PROGRAM AT MARCa

Cycle I Cycle II Cycle III Cycle IV Cycle V Cycle VI Cycle VII Cycle VIII

70-72 73-74 75-76 86-90 92-94 97-98 99-00 01-02

Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford

Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus

Jersey Red Poll Brahman Longhorn Tuli Wagyu Red Angus Beefmaster

S. Devon Braunvieh Sahiwal Salers Boran Norweg. Red Limousin Brangus

Limousin Gelbvieh Pinzgauer Galloway Belg. Blue Sw. Red&Wh. Charolais Bonsmara

Simmental Maine Anj. Tarentaise Nellore Brahman Friesian Simmental Romosinuano

Charolais Chianina Shorthorn Piedmontese Gelbvieh

Piedmontese

Charolais

Gelbvieh Pinzgauer

  • a
    • Sire breeds mated to Angus and Hereford females, Composite MARC III
    • (1/4 Angus, Hereford, Red Poll and Pinzgauer) cows were also included in
    • Cycles V, VI, and VII.
slide7

BREED GROUP MEANS FOR PREWEANING TRAITS OF CALVESPRODUCED IN CYCLE VII OF THE GPE PROGRAM(1999-2000 CALF CROP)

No. Gestation Calvings Calv. Birth Surv. 200-d

Sire breed calves length unassist. diff. wt. to wn. wn. wt.,

of calf born days % score lb. % lb.

** .** .** ** ns **

Hereford 190 284.3 95.6 1.24 90.4 96.2 524

Angus 189 281.6 99.6 1.01 84.0 96.7 533

Red Angus 206 282.1 99.1 1.06 84.5 96.7 526

Simmental 201 285.2 97.7 1.10 92.2 96.7 553

Gelbvieh 209 284.4 97.8 1.10 88.7 97.1 534

Limousin 200 286.2 97.6 1.13 89.5 96.9 519

Charolais 199 283.0 92.8 1.40 93.7 97.1 540

LSD.05 1.5 3.4 .20 3.1 3.8 13

slide8

Complementarity

Sire of Calf

During the past 30 yr, Continental breeds have significantly improved direct calving ease relative to British breeds (9% vs. 3% assisted, in cows

> 4 yr of age), especially Simmental and Gelbvieh.

Calves sired by Continental European breeds, have reduced birth weight relative to British breeds over the past 30 years (9 vs. 4 lb).

Angus and Red Angus sired calves have relatively light birth weights and greater calving ease than progeny by other sire breeds.

slide9

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION AND MATERNAL TRAITS OF F1 FEMALES MATED TO PRODUCE THEIR FIRST CALVES AT 2 YEARS OF AGE (2001 & 2002)

Sire Calf crop Calving Unassist. Birth 200-d wt per

breed born wnd. diff. births wt. calf cow exp

of female No. % % score % lb lb lb

F test ns ns ns ns ns ** ns

Hereford 80 92 70 1.9 74 81.5 413 292

Angus 84 83 76 2.0 72 79.8 424 325

Red Angus 104 86 76 2.2 68 78.2 415 317

Simmental 98 86 69 1.5 86 79.6 442 309

Gelbvieh 109 79 68 2.2 64 83.6 447 307

Limousin 109 85 73 2.0 68 80.3 429 313

Charolais 97 87 73 2.1 69 81.6 430 315

LSD < .05 14 15 .6 19 4.4 10 68

slide10

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION AND MATERNAL TRAITS OF F1 FEMALES MATED TO PRODUCE CALVES

AT 3-5 YEARS OF AGE (2002-2004)

Sire Calf crop Calving Unassist. Birth 200-d wt per

Breed No born wnd. diff. births wt. calf cow exp

of female rec. % % score % lb lb lb

F – test ns ns ns ns ns ** ns

Hereford 180 96 93 1.12 97.9 91.7 498 464

Angus 175 94 90 1.01 100.0 88.5 515 460

Red Angus 205 91 87 1.23 95.5 87.2 503 441

Simmental 214 90 88 1.03 99.1 88.2 535 463

Gelbvieh 220 89 86 1.07 98.8 89.8 527 452

Limousin 219 94 89 1.02 99.6 90.2 513 456

Charolais 210 94 91 1.18 97.2 91.3 522 475

LSD < .05 7 8 .32 5.6 4.9 10 45

slide11

Complementarity

Sire of Dam (Total Maternal)

Differences in calving ease and birth weight of progeny were not significant, even in 2 yr old first calf heifers.

During the past 30 yr, maternal calving ease has been improved greatly in Simmental relative to HA & AH (from 6% more to 11% less assistance in 2 yr old heifers).

slide12

Complementarity

  • Differences in reproduction rate,and calf survival to weaning are not significant.
  • Contrasts between British (H and A) and Continental European breeds (S, G, L, and C) are about 1/4th as great for direct (5.5 vs 22 lb) and 4/10th as great for maternal (10 vs. 24 lb) breed effects in the current evaluation as they were to 30 years ago.
slide14

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT AND CARCASS TRAITS

OF F1 STEERS (445 DAYS)

Final Retail Marb- USDA WB

Sire wt product ling Choice shear

Breed N lb % lb sc % lb

Hereford 97 1322 60.7 480 526 70 9.1

Angus 98 1365 59.2 488 584 95 8.9

Red Angus 93 1333 59.1 474 590 93 9.2

Simmental 92 1363 63.0 522 528 66 9.5

Gelbvieh 90 1312 63.8 509 506 58 9.9

Limousin 84 1286 63.7 504 504 57 9.5

Charolais 95 1349 63.7 523 517 62 9.6

LSD < .05 40 1.3 16 17 0.7 0.6

slide16
USDA QUALITY GRADE X YIELD GRADEFOR STEERS WITH SIMMENTAL, GELBVIEH, LIMOUSIN, AND CHAROLAIS SIRES (n = 361)
slide17

Complementarity

USDA Quality Grade and USDA Yield Grade is more precisely optimized in cattle with 50:50 ratios of Continental to British inheritance than in cattle with higher or lower ratios of Continental to British inheritance.

slide18

British (H, A, Ra) and Continental (S, G, L, and C) sired progeny do not differ significantly in Efficiency of Gain (live wt gain, lb/Mcal) to age or weight end points.

slide19

Complementarity

Progeny by British sire breeds (H, A, Ra) were more efficient (lb live wt gain/Mcal) than those by Continental (S, G, L, C) sire breeds to fatness endpoints

slide20

Complementarity

Progeny of Continental European sire breeds (S, G, L, and C) had more efficient gains (Live wt gain/Mcal and retail product/Mcal) than progeny of British sire breeds (H, A, and Ra) to weight of retail product (496 lb retail product) endpoints

slide21

SIRE BREED LEAST SQUARES MEANS FOR GROWTH

AND PUBERTY TRAITS OF HEIFERS IN CYCLE VII OF

THE GPE PROGRAM (1999-2000 CALF CROPs)

400-d 18 wt. month Frame Age Preg.

Sire breed wt. wt. ht. score at rate

of female No. lb. lb. cm. sc pub. %

F test * * ** ** ** ns

Hereford 81 841 950 128.4 5.5 342 94

Angus 85 869 936 127.2 5.3 340 88

Red Angus 106 868 953 126.9 5.2 339 91

Simmental 103 849 961 130.2 5.9 335 90

Gelbvieh 111 807 922 128.8 5.6 322 83

Limousin 109 824 933 129.9 5.8 363 87

Charolais 103 828 950 129.5 5.8 348 91

LSD < .05 31 32 1.6 .5 15 13

slide23

aData for Cycles I and II are averaged over cow ages 2 – 8 yr od age

(Arango et al.,2004). Data for cycle VII are for 4 yr old cows.

slide24

Complementarity

  • Continental and British breeds do not differ in weight or height today,
  • with one exception, Gelbvieh are significantly lighter.
  • Indications are that the reduced cow weights for Gelbvieh are associated
  • with negative genetic trends for birth weight in compared to slightly
  • positive or null genetic trends for birth weight in other breeds.
slide25

Matching Genetic

Potential to the

Climatic Environment

(Olson et al., 1991)

slide26

TRADEOFFS

  • Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses excel in
    • Weaning weight per cow exposed
    • Cow efficiency
    • but these advantages are tempered by:
      • Older age at puberty
      • Reduced meat tenderness
sire breed means for final weight and carcass traits of f1 steers 447 d
SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT ANDCARCASS TRAITS OF F1 STEERS (447 d)

Final USDA 14-d

Sire wt Retail product Choice Shear

breed No. lb % lb % lb

Hereford 106 1270 61.9 449 70.3 10.6

Angus 101 1278 62.2 454 84.6 8.9

Brahman 76 1199 63.8 449 30.4 12.9

Boran 138 1116 62.6 400 47.2 11.3

Tuli 158 1110 63.4 405 63.8 10.1

Nellore 97 1224 65.0 465 51.4 ----

LSD < .05 48 1.7 18 22.2 1.3

slide30

BREED GROUP MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION

AND MATERNAL TRAITS

2-years of age 3 to 7 years of age

Sire Calf 200-day wt Calf 200-day wt.

breed Age at crop per per cow crop per per cow

of puberty, wnd. calf exposed wnd. calf exposed

female No. days % lb lb % lb lb

Hereford 152 355 73.8 419 300 88.7 474 422

Angus 130 351 74.4 437 313 86.3 493 426

Avg. 282 353 74.1 428 307 87.5 483 424

Brahman

Original 82 429 54.3 456 238 85.9 511 440

Current 208 423 69.6 476 319 82.7 521 430

Avg. 244 426 62.0 466 279 83.2 516 435

Boran 206 396 83.3 444 357 86.2 488 421

Tuli 244 371 74.6 413 296 84.1 471 397

Nellore 82 406 75.1 463 324 91.6 514 461

LSD < .05 13 13.9 18 62 6.7 14 36

slide31

Genotype X Environment

Interaction

Cycle VIII

MARC LSU

M&F F

Hereford X

Angus X

Beefmaster X X

Brangus X X

Romosinuano X X

Bonsmara X X

slide32

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT AND CARCASS TRAITS

OF F1 STEERS (426 DAYS, 2001& 2002 CALF CROPS)

Final Retail USDA

Sire ADG wt product Marb. Choice Breed N lb/d lb % lb score %

Hereford 102 3.02 1245 61.8 466 515 52

Angus 103 3.15 1283 60.0 469 548 71

Brangus 107 2.99 1256 62.1 481 497 42

Beefmaster 103 3.10 1296 61.2 482 483 35

Bonsmara 104 2.80 1183 63.4 464 487 37

Romosinuano 102 2.71 1150 64.4 452 488 37

LSD < .05 .09 29 1.1 13 24 13

slide33

Proceedings: Symposium on Tropically Adapted Breeds

Regional Project S-1013

American Society of Animal Science

Southern Section Meeting

February 8, 2005

Little Rock, Arkansas

slide36

Complementarity

Sire of Calf

During the past 30 yr, Continental breeds have significantly improved direct calving ease relative to British breeds (9% vs 3% assisted), especially Simmental and Gelbvieh.

Calves sired by Continental European breeds, have reduced birth weight relative to British breeds over the past 30 years (9 vs 4 lb).

Angus and Red Angus sired calves have relatively light birth weights and greater calving ease than progeny by other sire breeds.

slide37

Complementarity

Sire of Dam (Total Maternal)

Differences in calving ease and birth weight of progeny were not significant, even in 2 yr old first calf heifers.

During the past 30 yr, maternal calving ease has been improved greatly in Simmental relative to HA & AH (from 6% more to 11% less assistance in 2 yr old heifers).

slide38

Complementarity

F1 Females

Gelbvieh and Simmental still reach puberty at younger ages than Briths breeds or other Continental European breeds.

Differences in reproduction rate,and calf survival to weaning are not significant.

Contrasts between British (H and A) and Continental European breeds (S, G, L, and C) are about 1/4th as great for direct (5.5 vs 22 lb) and 4/10th as great for maternal (10 vs. 24 lb) breed effects in the current evaluation as they were to 30 years ago.

slide39

F1 Cow Size

Continental and British breeds do not differ in weight

or height today, with one exception, Gelbvieh are

significantly lighter.

Indications are that the reduced cow weight for Gelbvieh

are associated with negative genetic trends for birth weight

compared to slightly positive or null genetic trends for

birth weight in other breeds.

slide40

Complementarity

British (H, A, Ra) and Continental (S, G, L, and C) sired progeny do not differ significantly in postweaning

Average daily gain or efficiency of live wt gain to age or

weight end points.

Progeny by British sire breeds (H, A, Ra) were

more efficient (lb live wt gain/Mcal) than those

by Continental (S, G, L, C) sire breeds to fatness

Endpoints.

Progeny of Continental European sire breeds (S, G, L, and C) had more efficient gains (Live wt gain/Mcal and retail product/Mcal) than progeny of British sire breeds (H, A, and Ra) to weight of retail product (496 lb retail product) endpoints.

slide41

Complementarity

USDA Quality Grade and USDA Yield Grade is more precisely optimized in cattle with 50:50 ratios of Continental to British inheritance than in cattle with higher or lower ratios of Continental to British inheritance.

slide42

Matching Genetic

Potential to the

Climatic Environment

  • In hotter more humid climates of the gulf coast cattle with ~ 50% tropical adapted germplasm may be optimal.
  • In more intermediate subtropics, cattle with ~25% tropically adapted germplasm may be optimal.
slide43

COMPLEMENTARITY

is maximized in terminal crossing systems

Terminal Sire Breed

Rapid and efficient growth

Optimizes carcass composition

and meat quality in

slaughter progeny

  • Cow Herd
  • Small to moderate size
  • Adapted to climate
  • Optimal milk production
    • for feed resources

Progeny

Maximize high quality lean beef

produced per unit feed consumed

by progeny and cow herd

slide44

MARC WEB SITE

www.marc.usda.gov

Click on: Online Information